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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: PD-1/PDL-1 ligation negatively regulates T cell functions. Once PD1 on T cell binds to PDL-1 on the APC, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif, which are located on the cytoplasmic end of PD-1 become phosphorylated. This results in recruitment of Src homology 2 domain phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1 and 2 (SHP-1 and SHP-2) which dephosphorylate early molecules of the TCR and CD28 signaling pathway leading to decreased clonal expansion of T cells, decreased effector and memory functions, and increased Tregs and exhausted T (TEX) phenotype.

Figure 2: PD-1/PDL-1 ligation negatively regulates T cell functions. Once PD1 on T cell binds to PDL-1 on the APC, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif, which are located on the cytoplasmic end of PD-1 become phosphorylated. This results in recruitment of Src homology 2 domain phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1 and 2 (SHP-1 and SHP-2) which dephosphorylate early molecules of the TCR and CD28 signaling pathway leading to decreased clonal expansion of T cells, decreased effector and memory functions, and increased Tregs and exhausted T (T<sub>EX</sub>) phenotype.