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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| March  | Volume 13 | Issue 3  
    Online since February 17, 2020

 
 
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LETTERS TO EDITOR
Imported cases of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections in Thailand: Mathematical modelling of the outbreak
Pathum Sookaromdee, Viroj Wiwanitkit
March 2020, 13(3):139-140
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.277516  
  16 3,774 715
REVIEW ARTICLES
Emerging and re-emerging human infectious diseases: A systematic review of the role of wild animals with a focus on public health impact
Marli C Cupertino, Michely B Resende, Nicholas AJ Mayer, Lorendane M Carvalho, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista
March 2020, 13(3):99-106
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.277535  
Infectious diseases continue to impose unpredictable burdens on global health and economies, a subject that requires constant research and updates. In this sense, the objective of the present article was to review studies on the role of wild animals as reservoirs and/or dispersers of etiological agents of human infectious diseases in order to compile data on the main wild animals and etiological agents involved in zoonotic outbreaks. A systematic review was carried out using PRISMA guidelines, using the PubMed, Scopus and SciELO platforms as data banks. The descriptors used were “zoonosis”, “human infectious diseases” and “wild animals”. The results show that wild animals (mainly bats, birds and primates) play an important role in the dissemination of etiological agents (mainly viruses, as a new coronavirus called 2019 Novel Coronavirus) in extensive geographic regions. Moreover, these wild animal organisms can act as the site for essential biotic synergy among several pathogenic microorganisms, promoting a higher rate of adaptation, mutation and even genetic recombination, with consequent stimulation of new strains and subtypes, inducing new infectious agents with unknown virulent potential. In conclusion, the monitoring of these diseases and adequate preparation for possible epidemics and pandemics are fundamental conditions for the mitigation of their future impact. The zoonotic threat of these etiological agents and the impact on public health can be enormous as shown by the ongoing epidemic of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019- nCoV) infections.
  8 5,270 1,026
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Dose prediction of lopinavir/ritonavir for 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection based on mathematic modeling
Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
March 2020, 13(3):137-138
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.277815  
  6 3,183 641
PERSPECTIVE
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) update: What we know and what is unknown
Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
March 2020, 13(3):97-98
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.277795  
  3 3,123 938
REVIEW ARTICLES
Mapping the high burden areas of cholera in Nepal for potential use of oral cholera vaccine: An analysis of data from publications and routine surveillance systems
Chulwoo Rhee, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Bibek Kumar Lal, Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, T Anh Wartel, Julia Lynch, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe
March 2020, 13(3):107-114
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.278095  
Objective: To assess the extent of existing published evidence on cholera and to characterize the epidemiologic data of cholera in Nepal. Methods: We conducted a literature scoping review by summarizing published literature reporting on cholera in Nepal from January 1946 to March 2019 in online databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Global Health. Additionally, we reviewed national surveillance data on clinically diagnosed and laboratory confirmed cholera reported by the Ministry of Health and Population. Results: Most of the published studies were conducted predominantly in Kathmandu Valley during the rainy season; however, outbreaks have been reported in other parts of Nepal including Terai, Hilly and Mountain regions. Our literature review exhibited that all age groups were affected by cholera, but particularly children and young adults were at-risk age groups in Nepal. Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa has been predominantly isolated with an emergence of resistant strains since 1996. Two mass vaccination campaigns using oral cholera vaccines were conducted: Rautahat district in 2014 and Banke district in 2017. Conclusions: Capacity building for a nation wide systematic cholera surveillance with rapid and reliable diagnosis is needed to better estimate the burden of cholera and identify geographically at-risk areas associated with the disease in Nepal. It is essential for developing an adequate policy on oral cholera vaccine introduction and effective water, sanitation and hygiene interventions.
  1 1,983 235
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Etiologies of tropical acute febrile illness in West Pahang, Malaysia: A prospective observational study
Alif Adlan Mohd Thabit, Mohd Hatta Abdul Mutalip, Wan Mohd Rasis Wan Ahmad Kamil, Mohd Ramadhan Mohd Din, Mohan Arumugam, Siti Sanaa Wan Azman, Roslinda Jaafar, Sathvinder Singh Gian Singh, Rafidah Abdullah, Eida Nurhadzira Muhammad, Nor Asiah Muhamad
March 2020, 13(3):115-122
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.278096  
Objective: To determine the etiologies of tropical acute febrile illness (TAFI) in West Pahang, Malaysia and to investigate morbidity and mortality factors in relation to TAFI. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted between January and June 2016 in six district hospitals throughout the western part of Pahang State in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 336 patients answered a standardized questionnaire and blood samples were collected for laboratory confirmation of infectious etiology. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with TAFI. Results: A total of 336 patients were included. The patients were mainly Malays (70.2%), males (61.3%), aged (44.6±17.4) years, with more than half (58.9%) presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms. The majority were diagnosed with dengue (35.7%) while malaria (4.5%) was the least frequent. The in-hospital mortality due to TAFI was 9.2%. Patients with meliodosis had five times higher mortality [Adjusted OR: 5.002, 95% CI: (1.233, 20.286)]. Patients with comorbidities such as cardiovascular symptoms (P <0.001) and renal replacement therapy initiation (P <0.001) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in all TAFI. Conclusions: The etiology of TAFI in the western Pahang includes dengue, leptospirosis, malaria and melioidosis, which carry the highest risk of in-hospital mortality. The presence of cardiovascular symptoms may be used to assess the disease severity in TAFI, but more studies are needed in the future.
  - 1,292 296
Blastocystis incidence, spontaneous clearance, persistence and risk factors in a rural community in Thailand: A prospective cohort study
Kawin Wongthamarin, Thanaporn Trairattanapa, Sirakit Kijanukul, Thanakrit Kritsilpe, Sarun Poobunjirdkul, Warit Chuengdee, Mathirut Mungthi, Saovanee Leelayoova, Tawee Naaglor, Paanjit Taamasri, Picha Suwannahitatorn, Toon Ruang-Areerate, Phunlerd Piyaraj
March 2020, 13(3):123-130
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.278097  
Objective: To investigate the incidence, spontaneous clearance, persistence and risk factors of Blastocystis infection in a rural community in Thailand. Methods: In February 2016, a cohort study was conducted in a rural community of Thailand. Baseline information of intestinal parasitic infections and follow-up visits were conducted. Blastocystis infection was detected in stool samples examined with short-term in vitro cultivation using Jones’ medium supplemented with 10% horse serum. Participants were tested for Blastocystis infection at every study visit. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate co-variates to determine the incidence of Blastocystis infection. Results: Of 733 enrolled participants, 57 (7.78%) were positive and 676 (92.22%) were negative for Blastocystis infection. All 676 participants were followed-up for Blastocystis infection between December 2016 and January 2018. In all, 52 of 482 cases (10.79%) comprised individual Blastocystis infection. The incidence density rates of Blastocystis infection, of spontaneous clearance of the disease and of persistent infection were 8.13, 63.14 and 38.70 per 1 000 person-months of follow-up, respectively. Our multivariate analysis revealed that opened defecation in fields or bushes (HR=4.8; 95% CI =2.1-10.4, P <0.001), raising cows (HR=2.8; 95% CI =1.1-7.1, P =0.032), not washing hands after animal contact (HR=2.1; 95% CI =1.0-4.2, P =0.044) and presenting symptoms of nausea or vomiting (HR=2.3; 95% C/=1.0-5.3, P =0.047) were predictive associated risks for the incidence of Blastocystis infection. Conclusions: Our study indicates that the best way to prevent Blastocystis infection can be by maintaining good personal hygiene, hand washing after animal contact and improving sanitary facilities.
  - 770 232
Molecular isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis in Didelphis virginiana from Hidalgo, Mexico
Nallely Rivero-Perez, Juan Ocampo-López, Benjamín Valladares-Carranza, Fabián R Gómez de Anda, Francisco J Peña Jiménez, Victor M Martínez Juárez, Armando Peláez Acero, José I Olave Leyva, Deyanira Ojeda-Ramírez, Adrian Zaragoza-Bastida
March 2020, 13(3):131-136
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.278098  
Objective: To isolate and identify the exact species of the genus Mycobacterium from Didelphis (D.) virginiana, and the direct implications of this bacterium to public health and veterinary medicine. Methods: Thirty-one D. virginiana were captured and necropsied in Hidalgo, Mexico. Tissue samples were collected to culture mycobacteria present and examine individual specimens’ histopathology. Mycobacterium identification was obtained through the application of amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA techniques. Results: Three strains were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium (M.) avium subsp. hominissuis by utilizing M. avium complex- specific primers. Granulomatous lesions were observed in the subpleural zone (granuloma grade Π ) and bronchial (granuloma grade I ) of the lungs of D. virginiana with positive isolation. Conclusions: Three strains of M. avium subsp. hominissuis, from lung tissue samples of D. virginiana were identified. This subspecies of M. avium has important implications in public health and veterinary medicine.
  - 778 210