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   2019| June  | Volume 12 | Issue 6  
    Online since June 27, 2019

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni: Current status and future trends
Amira Taman, Samar N El-Beshbishi
June 2019, 12(6):243-249
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.261270  
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects about 290 million patients worldwide. Children aged between 5 and 14 years represent 45.8% of the affected patients, in addition, schistosomiasis has been reported in Schistosoma-free areas, mostly because of tourism and immigration from endemic countries. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is mainly diagnosed via direct stool examination for egg detection. Immunological methods are favoured for disease monitoring and preliminary checking for communities in areas with low infection rates, and for patients with light and chronic infections where parasitological tests are negative. PCR-based diagnostic techniques are more sensitive, but expensive. Tegument proteins and miRNAs are promising markers for diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Here we review the diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis mansoni aiming to reach a standardized technique for diagnosis of early infection to help better control of the disease.
  3,050 351 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Annona muricata fruit extract protects against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular cancer in rats
Subin Varghese Thomas, John Paul, Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara, Subhankar Biswas, Aarti Abhishek Shah, Chandrashekar Kodangala Subraya, Yogendra Nayak
June 2019, 12(6):272-282
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.261274  
Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potentials of Annona muricata fruit by in vitro and in vivo methods. Methods: The ethanolic extract of Annona muricata fruit was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and further fractionated with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, scratch wound assay, and cell cycle analysis. IC50, apoptotic index and percentage cell migration were determined using HepG2 cells. For the in vivo studies, hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by administering 0.01% diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water in Wistar rats. In pre-treatment, rats were co-administered 200 mg/kg of fruit extract with DEN for 14 weeks. In post-treatment, the extract was co-administered after 8-weeks of DEN-induction for 14 weeks. Liver function test, haematological test, oxidative stress markers, relative liver weight, number of cancer nodules and histopathological parameters were determined. Results: Annona muricata fruit extract =significantly lowered cell proliferation counts. The chloroform-fraction possessed higher activity [IC50=(53.7±4.3) μg/mL]. The chloroform fraction inhibited cell migration, which was significant compared to curcumin. Further investigations regarding the mode of anticancer activity revealed that the chloroform fraction induced apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated that cells were being arrested at G0/G1. In the in vivo studies, the DEN-control group showed a significant decrease in body weights with increased mortality rate, hepatic nodules, and impairment of liver function compared to normal rats. The rats pre-treated and post-treated with the extract showed positive results with significant improvement in the parameters that were adversely affected by DEN. In addition, other adverse effects of DEN, such as blood dyscrasias and hepatic endogenous antioxidant, were significantly attenuated by Annona muricata fruit extract. Conclusions: The Annona muricata fruit extract has anticancer activity when tested by in vitro and in vivo hepatocellular cancer models.
  1,665 331 -
Epidemiology and immunodiagnostics of Strongyloides stercoralis infections among migrant workers in Malaysia
Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne A.L. Lim, Rahmah Noordin, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Norsyahida Arifin, Jerzy Marian Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
June 2019, 12(6):250-257
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.261271  
Objective: To investigate the status of Strongyloides(S.) stercoralis infections among migrant workers in Malaysia for the first time and identify risk factors. Methods: Four diagnostic methods were employed for the detection of S. stercoralis including microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercial kit, ELISA using the rSs1a antigen and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Low and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors (i.e. manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic service) were tested on a voluntary basis. Results: The overall seroprevalence of S. stercoralis from 483 workers employing the ELISA commercial kit for IgG was 35.8% (n=173; 95% CI: 31.5%-40.1%) whereas seroprevalence using the rSs1a-ELISA was 13.0% (n=63; 95% CI: 10.0%-16.0%). Cross tabulation between the ELISA commercial kit and rSs1a-ELISA showed that only 6.4% (n=31; 95% CI: 4.2%-8.6%) of the samples were positive in both tests. Microscopic examination of all 388 fecal samples were negative; however subsequent testing by a nested PCR against DNA from the same samples successfully amplified DNA from three male subjects (0.8%; 3/388). Male workers, India and Myanmar nationality, food service occupation and those living in the hostel were statistically significant with seroprevalence (P<0.005). Conclusion: This is the first report on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis infections among the migrant workers in Malaysia. Our results highlight the importance of using appropriate diagnostic tools for detection. The presence of anti-S. stercoralis antibodies in the study population calls for improvements in personal hygiene and sanitation standards among migrant workers in Malaysia through control strategies including health education campaigns and programs aimed at increasing awareness and healthy behaviors.
  1,415 239 1
Anticancer activity of Mahonia leschenaultii methanolic root extract and berberine on Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma in mice
R Latha, T M Chozhavel Rajanathan, Ameer Khusro, N Chidambaranathan, Paul Agastian, Sankaranarayanan Nagarajan
June 2019, 12(6):264-271
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.261273  
Objective: To evaluate the effects of methanol root extract of Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine of Mahonia leschenaultii on Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma in Swiss Albino mice. Methods: The methanol root extracts of Mahonia leschenaultii (200 and 400 mg/kg) were given orally, and berberines (10 and 20 mg/kg) were injected intra-peritoneally for 14 successive days in tumor bearing mice. Hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, haemoglobin level, granulocytes, and agranulocytes), lipid parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides), serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatise) and mean survival and solid tumor growth were determined and compared with untreated mice. 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg) was used as a reference standard drug. Results: Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine reduced the hematocrit significantly. Furthermore, Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine improved the survival of mice significantly and restored the affected hematological and lipid parameters similar to the normal levels. Conclusions: These observations show a strong anticancer effect of methanol root extract of Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine in suppressing Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma cancer cell growth in a mouse model by controlling haematological, lipid, serum enzymes, and other derived parameters effectively.
  1,113 322 -
Symptoms of dengue at the acute and post-infection stage in the Western Province, Sri Lanka: A cross-sectional study
Chrishantha Abeysena, Sharika Peiris, Indrakantha Welgama, Upul Gunasekara, Kolitha Wickramage
June 2019, 12(6):258-263
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.261272  
Objective: To describe the symptoms of dengue at acute and post-infection stage and to identify preventive strategies adopted by the patients in the Western Province, Sri Lanka. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Western Province of Sri Lanka in November 2017. The study population consisted of 473 confirmed dengue patients aged from 18 to 64 years who were hospitalized between June and August 2017. A stratified random sampling technique was applied to select the participants. Data collection was done by trained interviewers, using a structured, pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: The most common symptoms of dengue fever at the acute stage was body ache (81.81%, n=387), followed by headache (71.67%, n=339), loss of appetite (66.80%, n=316), tiredness (53.06 %, n=251) and vomiting (41.86%, n=198). The most common symptom during the post-infection stage was body ache (48.62%, n=230), followed by fatigue (39.74%, n=188), and loss of appetite (28.75%, n=136). Adding sand to the water in places where water accumulates (41.64%, n=197) was the most common method used to prevent transmission of dengue followed by removing/draining stagnant water regularly (36.15%, n=177). Use of mosquito nets (83.08%, n=393) was the most common method in preventing mosquito bites followed by the use of fans among dengue patients (56.02%, n=265). Conclusions: The study shows a prolonged persistence of clinical symptoms during the postinfection period.
  1,065 188 -
Optimized combinations of statins and azoles against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts in vitro
Ines Sifaoui, Carmen M Martín-Navarro, Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Basilio Valladares, José E Piñero, Sutherland K Maciver, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
June 2019, 12(6):283-287
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.261287  
Objective: To evaluate the combination of several statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin and simvastatin) and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole) against Acanthamoeba spp. Methods: The efficiency of the different drug combinations against the trophozoite stage of different Acanthamoeba strains were evaluated by Alamar Blue assay. Effect on the cyst stage was observed by inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of combinations of azoles and statins was evaluated by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase from a murine macrophage cell line. Results: Combinations of any of the tested statins and voriconazole or posaconazole were more efficient in inhibiting Acanthamoeba compared to statins or azoles individually. The drug combinations at the combined inhibitory concentrations 50% showed lower toxicity compared to that of the compounds alone. Conclusions: The combinations of statins together with voriconazole and posaconazole are more efficient than these drugs alone, and these combinations have lower cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines.
  938 202 3
CASE REPORT
Community-acquired pneumonia with Acinetobacter radioresistens bacteremia in an immunocompetent host: A case report
Yi Hern Tan, Lishan Jessica Quah, Humaira Shafi
June 2019, 12(6):288-290
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.261308  
Rationale: Acinetobacter radioresistens is a non-fermentative Gram-negative coccobacillus that is environmentally ubiquitous and is an uncommon cause of pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient with no known chronic medical illness. Patient concerns: A middle-aged Asian male with a smoking history presented with fever and cough. Physical examination was unremarkable. Chest imaging was consistent with pulmonary parenchymal infection and blood culture grew Acinetobacter radioresistens. Diagnosis: Community acquired pneumonia with Acinetobacter radioresistens bacteremia. Interventions: The patient received a combination of intravenous and oral ampicillin-sulbactam over 2 weeks. Outcomes: Repeat blood cultures showed resolution of bacteremia. Completion of antimicrobial treatment saw resolution of respiratory symptoms and radiological pneumonic changes. Lessons: Acinetobacter radioresistens causing community-acquired pneumonia in an immunocompetent host has never been described before. It may be a novel emerging infectious agent in pulmonary infections. Its clinical course in this immunocompetent patient appears to be relatively benign.
  922 182 -