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   2019| December  | Volume 12 | Issue 12  
    Online since December 13, 2019

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Multi-targeting cytotoxic drug leads from mushrooms
MVNL Chaitanya, Asha Jose, P Ramalingam, SC Mandal, P Narendra Kumar
December 2019, 12(12):531-536
Due to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, cancer have become a resistant disease and there is a need for new molecules having multiple targeting action that promotes apoptosis. Phyto-molecules having multiple targeting anticancer activity are in high demand and there is less documentation or information available on these metabolites. It is evident that mushrooms are became the store houses of new anticancer molecules and mushrooms like Agaricus blazei, Antrodia camphorate, Albatrellus confluens, Bolteus badius, Cordyceps militaris, Clitocybe maxima, Funalia trogii, Grifola frondosa, and Inocybe umbrinella, are some of the medicinal mushrooms reported for their cytotoxic activity. Cytotoxic molecules like lentinan, grifolin, illudin-S, psilocybin, ganoderic acid, theanine, and hispolon, have been isolated from various mushroom species. However, studies have been limited only to in vitro cytotoxic mechanisms and very few trials have been conducted to prove the clinical efficacy of these drug leads. Hence, the current review focuses on new anticancer metabolites isolated from various mushrooms having multiple targeting mechanisms in cancer. However, an extensive research is needed to define the biosynthesis and clinical mechanism of these multiple acting metabolites. This review provides a platform for researchers new anticancer drugs and to bring out potent multiple acting anticancer newer drugs.
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Seroprevalence of brucellosis among exposed agro-pastoral communities in southern Saudi Arabia
Ahmed M. Al-Hakami, Abdulah J. Alqahtani, Riyad A. Moosa, Sultan K. Kadasah, Talal Y. Gofashe, Amer F. Binzafrah, Abdulrahman M. Almobty, Ihab Abdulrahim, Abdullah M. Alkahtani, Shehata F. Shehata, Mohamed E. Hamid
December 2019, 12(12):545-551
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in human and animal’s communities in southern Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Aseer and Jazan, Saudi Arabia (October 2017-October 2018). Human serum samples (n=339) were initially screened for Brucella antibodies and positive samples were further titrated for Brucella antibodies by immunocapture assay (titer of ⩾1:320 as positive). Animal samples (n=828) were screened using the Rose Bengal test. Relationship status was dichotomized to measure and predict independent contributions to variations in human using univariate and multivariate stepwise binary logistic regression model. Results: The rate of brucellosis among the 339 human samples in the two regions was 33.9%, and the rate of acute brucellosis was 12.4%. The rate of brucellosis in animals was 4.7%. Human brucellosis among the target groups was higher in northwestern Aseer (53.3%) compared to Southeastern Aseer (25.9%) and Jazan region (20.6%). The disease was more prevalent among non-Saudi nationals (35.2%) compared to Saudis (30.5%). The rate of brucellosis among butchers and shepherds was 37.5% and 37.2%, respectively. The rate of brucellosis was 37.8% in people over 30 years of age. Our univariate analysis showed that residing in Aseer region (OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.50-4.40), especially residing in northwestern Aseer region (OR: 4.40, 95% CI: 2.40-7.90), frequent consumption of raw meat (OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.50-5.50), shepherds (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 0.80-5.30), owning sheep (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.10-4.40), daily contact with animals (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 0.75-5.80), and those > 30-year-old (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.00-2.40) were significantly associated with increased risks of brucellosis. Our multivariate analysis further showed that residing in northwestern Aseer (OR: 9.16, 95% CI: 3.39-24.76) and having sheep (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00-1.35) were significant and independent risks of brucellosis while residing in agricultural region (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10-0.78) was a significant and independent protector against brucellosis. Conclusions: The study concluded that residing in northwestern Aseer area and having animals (sheep) are associated with significantly increased risks of brucellosis.
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Prevalence and risk factors of avian influenza H9N2 among backyard birds in Iran in 2015
Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Mohammad Hasan Rabiee, Farshad Tehrani
December 2019, 12(12):559-564
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of H9N2 avian influenza among backyard birds in Iran between October and November 2015. Methods: In this study, a total of 15 500 blood samples and 2 884 cloacal swab samples of backyard birds were collected in villages of Iran between October and November 2015. Then, serum samples were examined with the hemagluttination inhibition test and cloacal swab samples were pooled together and examined by RT-PCR. The samples that had serological titer ≥ 4 (log2) and villages that had at least one seropositive sample were considered positive. Results: Out of 559 villages, 526 (94.10%) were seropositive for the infection. Among 15 500 serum samples, 7 468 (48.18%) samples were seropositive for the infection. The seroprevalence according to species was 54.02% among chickens, 17.59 % among ducks, 18.73% among turkeys, 84.21% among pigeons and 12.15% among ostriches, partridges and pheasants. Based on molecular test, 3.04% villages were positive. The seroprevalence in hot and humid area was less than that in cold and humid area (P<0.05). Conclusions: H9N2 avian influenza has high seroprevalence among backyard birds of Iran. Therefore, preventive measures such as biosecurity Practices and monitoring should be applied to reduce the prevalence.
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Spectrum of thalassemia mutations in fetuses of Han and Li ethinicities in Hainan province, China
Chao Liang, Xue-yin Chen, Xue Gao, Hong-jian Chen, Ying-xia Jin, Yao Zhou, Ming-hong Li, Wen-cong Wang, Wei-ying Lu, Yuan-hua Huang, Jun Wang, Qi Li, Yan-lin Ma
December 2019, 12(12):537-544
Objective: To analyze the frequency and spectrum of thalassemia mutations in amniotic fluid samples collected from Han and Li people in Hainan province of China. Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis on prenatal diagnosis of amniotic fluid samples collected from pregnant women who may have next generation with high risks of medium or severe thalassemia between 2005 and 2016. Diverse fetal thalassemia genotypes and mutated alleles in Han and Li people were analyzed and cmpared. Results: We examined 536 amniotic fluid samples from Han people and 588 from Li people, among which 406 Han and 500 Li samples were found to carry at least one thalassemia gene mutation, with a detection rate of 75.75% and 85.03%, respectively. Among all α- and β-thalassemia mutant alleles detected, the most frequently found mutations in Han and Li samples were SEA-type of α-thalassemia and 41/42 (–CTTT) of β-thalassemia, respectively. A total of 75 severe thalassemia cases were identified in Han samples and 53 in Li samples. In most of these severe cases, parents chose to terminate pregnancy after being informed of thalassemia-related risks. Conclusions: The thalassemia mutations shows ethnic and area specificity, and that prenatal diagnosis for high-risk thalassemia carrier pregnant women is an efficient approach to prevent and control the occurrence of severe thalassemia in the high-prevalence areas.
  1,176 213 1
Alpinia officinarum Hance extract alleviates particulate matter-induced lung injury in mice
Yao-xin Zhao, Wen-jing Ruan, Wen-lai Xue, Ling Zhao
December 2019, 12(12):565-573
Objective: To evaluate the effect of Alpinia officinarum Hance (A. officinarum) extract on lung injury caused by particulate matter (PM). Methods: The Kunming mice were intranasally instilled with PM and treated with A. officinarum extract for 3 weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood and lung samples were collected for biochemical, serological and histopathological studies. Results: Serological analysis showed that albumin levels, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly reduced after administrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of A. officinarum extracts to the PM injured mice. Markers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde levels and nitric oxide synthase activities, were significantly decreased. Correspondingly, total superoxide dismutase activity was improved dramatically. The expressions of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were also down-regulated obviously. In addition, pathological sections of lung tissue showed that A. officinarum could reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells, pulmonary edema and pulmonary fibrosis. These results showed that A. officinarum extract could alleviate PM-induced lung injury via reducing the permeability of cell membranes in lung tissue, eliminating oxidative stress and relieving inflammatory response. Conclusions: A. officinarum extract was an efficient treatment for PM-induced lung injury ir mice, and it may be a promising therapeutic agent in future.
  1,049 229 -
Effect of El Niño Southern Oscillations on the incidence of enteric fever in Ahmedabad, India from 1985 to 2017
Veena Iyer, Susanna Abraham Cottagiri, Ayushi Sharma, Divya Nair, Mehul S. Raval, Bhavin Solanki, Dileep Mavalankar
December 2019, 12(12):552-558
Objective: To explore the relationship between climate variables and enteric fever in the city of Ahmedabad and report preliminary findings regarding the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillations and Indian Ocean Dipole over enteric fever incidence. Method: A total of 29 808 Widal positive enteric fever cases reported by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and local climate data in 1985-2017 from Ahmedabad Meteorology Department were analysed. El Niño, La Niña, neutral and Indian Ocean Dipole years as reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for the same period were compared for the incidence of enteric fever. Results: Population-normalized average monthly enteric fever case rates were the highest for El Niño years (25.5), lower for La Niña years (20.5) and lowest for neutral years (17.6). A repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference in case rates during the three yearly El Niño Southern Oscillations categories. However, visual profile plot of estimated marginal monthly means showed two distinct characteristics: an early rise and peaking of cases in the El Niño and La Niña years, and a much more restrained rise without conspicuous peaks in neutral years. Further analysis based on monthly El Niño Southern Oscillations categories was conducted to detect differences in median monthly case rates. Median case rates in strong and moderate El Niño months and strong La Niña months were significantly dissimilar from that during neutral months (P<0.001). Conclusions: El Niño Southern Oscillations events influence the incidence of enteric fever cases in Ahmedabad, and further investigation from more cities and towns is required.
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis in an indigenous infant with Down’s syndrome: A case report
Fernanda Fresneda Villibor, Geracina Marchesini, Ana Lúcia Roselino Ribeiro, Renata Oliveira Guaré
December 2019, 12(12):574-576
Rationale: Leishmaniasis, caused by the protozoan Leishmania and transmitted by sandflies, is endemic to the tropical and subtropical areas of Brazil. It is one of the neglected tropical diseases in the world. Patient concerns: A 20-month-old indigenous infant with severe malnutrition and Down’s syndrome presented with a facial ulcer for 5 months. Diagnosis: Giemsa staining of scraped ulcer tissues indicated the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania sp., and positive Montenegro’s intradermal test helped in diagnosing the condition as cutaneous leishmaniasis. Interventions: The child was hospitalized and received intravenous treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (1 mg/kg/day of amphotericin B). Outcomes: The condition was cured with amphotericin B (1 mg/kg/day for 14 d). Lessons: Because of infanticide practices in indigenous cultures, indigenous infants with Down’s syndrome rarely survive. Thus, no similar case has been reported in the literature.
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