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   2019| November  | Volume 12 | Issue 11  
    Online since November 26, 2019

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Phytopharmacological potential of the natural gift Moringa oleifera Lam and its therapeutic application: An overview
Sakthivel Lakshmana Prabu, Appavoo Umamaheswari, Ayarivan Puratchikody
November 2019, 12(11):485-498
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.271288  
Traditionally, medicinal plants of family Moringaceae have been well-recognized due to their multipurpose utilization in various fields such as treatment of several diseases for they have a broad range of pharmacological activities, in wastewater treatment as well as food source. Fractionation of this medicinal plants and its bioactivity study discloses the presence of several phytoconstituents and secondary metabolites like terpenes, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, carohydrates, flavonoids, vitamins and minerals. The results of bioactivity study results revealed that different extracts such as aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic of Moringa oleifera showed notable therapeutic activities. Our present review explore and focus on the phytochemical composition and various pharmacological activities like immunomodulator, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antiepileptic, cardioprotective, lipid lowering, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, anti-nephrotoxicity and anti-microbial activities to arouse public consciousness about the nutritional and medicinal value of this “miracle tree - Moringa oleifera” in favor of humanity.
  1,279 352 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Influence of geographic, knowledge and behavioral factors on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in the Northeast of Thailand
Kittipong Sornlorm, Wongsa Loahasiriwong, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Wilaiphorn Thinkhamrop
November 2019, 12(11):499-506
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.271289  
Objective: To determine the influence of geographic, knowledge and behavioral factors on Opisthorchis (O.) viverrini infection in the Northeast of Thailand. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by using four datasets of years 2016 and 2017. Generalized linear mixed model was employed to analyze association between geographic, knowledge and behavioral factors and O. viverrini infection. Results: Totally there were 1 885 participants. The prevalence of O. viverrini infection was 10.03%. Geographic factors that showed statistically significant association with O. viverrini infection in the Northeast region were featured by at least a dam and reservoir (Adj. OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.49-7.13, P < 0.001), at least a weir (Adj. OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.09-2.77, P = 0.020), > 50 dogs and cats per village (Adj. OR = 3.40, 95%CI: 2.17-5.31, P < 0.001), and rice fields covered > 50% of its areas (Adj. OR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.04-4.01, P = 0.036), as well as low to moderate levels of knowledge (Adj. OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.32 to 1.94, P < 0.001), consumed raw fish (Adj. OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02 to 3.52, P = 0.040) and consumed processed raw fish (Adj. OR = 3.03, 95%CI: 2.20 to 4.18, P < 0.001). Other significant covariates were gender and age of the respondents. Conclusions: O. viverrini infection still remains a public health problem of the Northeast of Thailand. Geographic and demographic factors, knowledge, and consumption behaviors of raw fish products are significantly associated with O. viverrini infection.
  1,091 213 -
Nanoemulsified Mentha piperita and Eucalyptus globulus oils exhibit enhanced repellent activities against Anopheles stephensi
Rahman Mohammadi, Mehdi Khoobdel, Maryam Negahban, Solmaz Khani
November 2019, 12(11):520-527
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.271292  
Objective: To formulate nanoemulsion from essential oils of Mentha (M.) piperita L. and Eucalyptus (E.) globulus L. and to compare their repellant activity with normal essential oils and N,N-diethyl-m toluamide (DEET) as a standard chemical compound. Methods: In this study, protection time of essential oils and DEET was evaluated on four human subjects using test cage, and their values were determined against Anopheles stephensi. Furthermore, ED50 values for the above essential oils were determined using the ASTM E951- 94 method. The compositions of essential oils were determined using GC-MS, and droplet size and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion were measured with dynamic light scattering. Results: The results (expressed as mean±SD) showed that protection time of M. piperita 50%, M. piperita Nano 50%, E. globulus 50%, E. globulus Nano 50%, and DEET 25% was (2.89±0.45) h, (4.17±0.28) h, (0.96±0.27) h, (5.51±0.02) h, and (6.10±0.47) h, respectively. ED50 values were 29.10 (95% CI: 23.36-36.06) μg/cm2 for Mentha, 19.39 (15.35-23.99) μg/cm2 for Mentha Nano, 36.10 (28.70-48.01) μg/cm2 for Eucalyptus, 18.50 (14.65-23.23) μg/cm2 for Eucalyptus Nano, and 3.62 (2.68-4.55) μg/cm2 for DEET, respectively. E. globulus Nano and M. piperita Nano provided significantly longer protection than normal essential oils E. globulus and M. piperita (P<0.01). Conclusions: The preparation of nanoemulsion from the essential oils of M. piperita and E. globulus, significantly increases the protection time and reduces ED50 values of these essential oils, hence, M. piperita Nano and E. globulus Nano can be good alternatives to DEET and other chemical compounds.
  847 194 2
COMMENTARY
Fatal cases of animal-mediated human rabies: Looking beyond sectoral prism to One Health
Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
November 2019, 12(11):483-484
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.271287  
  824 151 -
CASE REPORT
Fatal case of human rabies infection: A case report
Seyed Abbas Hosseinalipour, Faranak Firoozfar, Abedin Saghafipour, Nazanin Ziasheikholeslami
November 2019, 12(11):528-530
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.271293  
Rationale: Rabies, as an acute viral disease of the mammal’s central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality rate, is transmitted to humans through the bite of a rabid animals, especially canine and feline. Patient concerns: An Afghan man, aged 50 years was bitten by a fox in a farm around the Qom-Tehran road, Central Iran in 2018. The patient visited the doctor after the bite, however the period between incidence and hospital visit was not established and no indication was given whether the bite site injury was thoroughly washed. The patient was neither referred to the health center for vaccination (post-exposure prophylaxis) nor an effective therapeutic measures was applied. Forty-five days post-exposure, the patient presented with symptoms such as headache, fever, tingling and burning sensation and was referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) unit of Qom Provincial Health Center. Diagnosis: Rabies infection. Interventions: Forty-five days after the animal bite, in CDC of Qom Health Center, he received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis treatment was referred to an infectious diseases physician. Based on the history of animal bites, the patient was classified as probable case of rabies. The clinical symptoms of rabies appeared in patient after hospitalization. Outcomes: Ultimately the patient died in hospital 4 days after hospitalization (50 days after the occurrence of animal bite). After referring the patient to the CDC, the patient’s saliva (0.5-1 mL) was sampled three times every 3-6 hours and tested by PCR. Human rabies was confirmed by Department of Virology in the Pasteur Institute of Iran. Lessons: Physicians and clinicians have responsibilities to be critical in observations and take prompt actions in case of animal bites, as rabies usually develops within 7 to 14 days, and delayed intervention after the onset of symptoms, vaccine and serum injections cannot lead to the survival of the patient.
  762 168 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in paraffin-embedded human tissues from Southwest Iran
Elham Yousefi, Abdollah Rafiei, Iran Rashidi, Shahram Khademvatan, Masoud Foroutan
November 2019, 12(11):507-511
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.271290  
Objective: To investigate Echinococcus (E.) granulosus genotypes as the causative agents of hydatidosis in humans in the southwest of Iran (Khuzestan province). Methods: In this study, isolates of 80 archived human paraffin embedded hydatid cysts were collected from pathology laboratories in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan province. DNA was extracted and examined by nested-PCR of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and PCR-RFLP. In addition, the sequences of fragments of genes coding for Cox space1 and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were also examined. Results: Of the 80 paraffin samples, 44 (55.0%) were from the liver, 27 (33.8%) from the lung, and the rest from other organs. The amplified hydatid genomic DNA showed that the cysts were E. granulosus strains. The results of PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of G1 genotype (sheep strain) in all human isolates. Furthermore, no camel strain (G6) was detected among all samples in the regions studied. Conclusions: The molecular findings indicate that the predominant genotype involved in E. granulosus transmission in southwest of Iran is the common sheep strain (G1), which occurs in human populations. These results may have important implications for hydatid disease control in the studied areas.
  700 189 1
Efficacy of diurnal BG-Sentinel traps to capture nocturnal adult Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes and impact of altitudinal variations in forests
Devi Shankar Suman
November 2019, 12(11):512-519
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.271291  
Objective: To establish an efficacious and efficient surveillance method of Armigeres (Ar.) subalbatus, a known filarial vector, surviving in forest habitats to estimate realistic population density and assess the impact of altitudinal variations on the efficacy of the trap. Methods: In the study, 12 locations in areas with an altitudinal range from 82 m to 920 m were selected in three reserve forests for night sampling of adult Ar. subalbatus mosquito using standard chemical lure based BG-Sentinel traps and CDC-light traps in pairs. Effects of locations and time were estimated on the efficacy of traps as mosquito density using multifactor analysis of variance for significant differences. Impact of altitudinal variations on the efficacy of traps was assessed using multiple regression with slope comparison. Results: BG-Sentinel trap collected significantly more adult Ar. subalbatus, 4.43 folds in Gorumara NP, 5.19 folds in Neora Valley NP and 12.10 folds in Mahananda WLS than the CDC-light trap irrespective to locations. BG-Sentinel traps were tolerant of altitudinal variations (80 m -170 m) and showed no significant relationship between density and altitudes in contrast to CDC-light traps which showed a significant negative impact on capturing efficacy with increase in altitudes (P<0.001). Conclusions: The study suggests that BG-Sentinel traps can be used effectively and efficiently to collect more Ar. subalbatus mosquitoes during night time in comparison to CDC-light trap under complex climatic conditions of forest and variable altitudes.
  659 134 1