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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| September  | Volume 11 | Issue 9  
    Online since September 27, 2018

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Role of dietary phytochemicals in modulation of miRNA expression: Natural swords combating breast cancer
Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi, Javed Iqbal, Tariq Mahmood, Ali Talha Khalil, Barkat Ali, Sobia Kanwal, Sayed Afzal Shah, Riaz Ahmad
September 2018, 11(9):501-509
The National Cancer Institute had projected breast cancer (BC) as one of the topmost prevalent malignancies around the globe. In many cases, BC becomes resistant to chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapies. Traditional BC therapies are associated with adverse side effects, drug resistance and recurrence. Extensive research work has shown that these dietary phytochemicals (DPs) may exert therapeutic effects by regulating the miRNA expression. A large number of DPs have been researched as miRNA regulatory agents against BC and some other DPs have not yet been tested against BC. We have discussed the effects of curcumin, diallyl disulphide, 3,3′ diindolylmethane, ellagic acid, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, resveratrol, and sulforaphane on regulation of expression of BC miRNAs in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo models. We have also shown some of the possible DPs (Oleanolic acid, capsaicin, benzyl isothiocyanate, epigallocatechin gallate, phenethyl isothiocyanate and ursolic acid) that have shown miRNA regulatory activities and have not yet been tested against BC miRNAs. Finally, current limitations, challenges, future perspectives of DPs and BC research are also critically discussed.
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Distribution and ecological aspects of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in Northeastern Iran
Aioub Sofizadeh, Yavar Rassi, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Hamid Reza Shoraka, Fatemeh Mesgarian, Sayena Rafizadeh
September 2018, 11(9):526-533
Objective: To determine both the distribution and the ecological characteristics of sand flies in Golestan Province, northeast of Iran in 2016. Methods: In this study, 34 villages were selected based on their geographical conditions. Sticky paper traps were used for collecting the sand flies. Sampling was carried out in each of villages from May to November. In each village, 60 traps for indoors and 60 for outdoors were monthly installed. The species of all collected sand flies were determined using approved morphological keys. Pearson coefficient correlation was used to find the relationship between the number of collected Phlebotomus papatasi from different villages and incidence rate of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis as well as the number of positive cases of the disease. The altitude of the studied villages was extracted from digital elevation model of the area using GIS and vegetation cover density index of the province was extracted from Modis satellite imagery and distribution map of sand flies drown up. Results: Overall, 5 428 sand flies were collected and identified, belonging to 18 species. Phlebotomus wenyoni was reported for the first time from the area in this study. The frequency of sand flies in the villages located in northeast of the Golestan province (the plateau area, lower altitude, arid and semi-arid climates, and lower vegetation cover density), were more than other villages in this province. There was a significant correlation between the number of collected Phlebotomus papatasi and incidence rate of the zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in different villages (r=0.837, P=0.019) as well as the number of positive cases of the disease (r=0.688, P<0.001). Conclusions: In the northeaster areas of Golestan Province which is known as the endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, the abundance of sand flies were more and the conditions for their growth and development were more appropriate.
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Enhanced surveillance and cohesive policies needed to tackle Rift Valley fever
Eunice A Owino
September 2018, 11(9):547-548
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Antihyperglycemic effect of Passiflora glandulosa cav. fruit rinds flour in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice
Erlāndia Alves Magalhaes Queiroz, Raquel Teixeira Terceiro Paim, Sandra Machado Lira, José Ytalo Gomes da Silva, Carla Laíne Silva Lima, Marcelo Oliveira Holanda, Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto Vieira, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes
September 2018, 11(9):510-517
Objective: To investigate the effect of administration of Passiflora glandulosa (P. glandulosa) fruit rinds flour on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening and parameters such as centesimal composition and brine shrimp toxicity were evaluated. For in vivo study Swiss female mice were divided into four groups: NC-normal control; DC-diabetic control animals receiving saline; MET-diabetic animals receiving metformin (200 mg/kg); PFRF-diabetic animals receiving P. glandulosa fruit rinds flour (200 mg/kg). All of them were treated for 28 d. STZ was used in a single dose of 120 mg/kg to establish diabetic models. Body weight, water and food intake, fasting blood glucose were measured. Histopathological analysis of pancreas and liver were performed to evaluate STZ-induced tissue injuries. Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavanones and triterpenoids. The P. glandulosa fruit rinds flour was non-toxic by the brine shrimp test. The fruit rinds flour also reduced the loss of body weight and significantly decreased food intake in the diabetic mice. Additionally, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed for 15 d and this was maintained on 21 d and 28 d when compared with diabetic mice. Furthermore, the P. glandulosa fruit rinds flour has a favourable effect on the histopathological changes of the pancreas in STZ induced diabetes. Conclusions: It is concluded that P. glandulosa fruit rinds flour is a natural product that contains potent antioxidant compounds and presents good prospects for the improvement of diabetic mellitus by reducing serum glucose levels.
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Ameliorative effect of Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. leaves extract against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver injury in rats
Gita Mishra, Hemeshwer Kumar Chandra, Nisha Sahu, Satendra Kumar Nirala, Monika Bhadauria
September 2018, 11(9):518-525
Objective: To evaluate therapeutic potential of hydroethanolic extract of Pergularia daemia (P. daemia) against anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATDs) induced liver injury. Methods: Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups of six animal in each. The ATDs and P. daemia extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were conjointly administered for 8 weeks and various biochemical, histoarchitectural, ultrastructural studies were performed. Results: Administration of ATDs significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, bilirubin and decreased glucose and albumin level. Increased lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were found after ATDs exposure. Administration of P. daemia extract maintained serum biochemical indices as well as antioxidant status similar to control and diminished oxidative stress in dose dependent manner. Histological and ultra-structural observations substantiated biochemical findings. Conclusions: P. daemia has therapeutic potential against ATDs induced liver injury and may be of clinical significance after extensive studies.
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Acute and chronic toxicity studies of hydromethanol leaf extract of Helianthus annuus Linn. in rats
Samuel O Onoja, Samuel C Udem, Aruh O Anaga, Isaac U Asuzu
September 2018, 11(9):534-539
Objective: To investigate the safety levels of hydromethanol leaf extract of Helianthus annuus Linn. (H. annuus) in rat. Methods: Acute oral toxicity test of hydromethanol leaf extract of H. annuus was conducted through up and down method at 2.00 g/kg dose limit in rats. The chronic toxicity study was conducted by administering different concentrations (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 g/ kg) of hydromethanol extract of H. annuus in feed, for 90 consecutive days. On days 30, 60 and 90, blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus of the rats for determination of serum biochemical parameters. Histopathological examination of the pancreas, livers, kidneys and testis were also conducted. Results: The LD50 of the hydromethanol extract of H. annuus was greater than 2.00 g/kg and it significantly (P < 0.05) reduced serum cholesterol. On days 60 and 90, the serum urea and creatinine levels of hydromethanol extract of H. annuus treated groups were elevated when compared with the control group. There were fibrosis in the kidneys and livers; degeneration and necrosis in the testis and significant dose-dependent increases in number and size of pancreatic islet of langerhans. Conclusions: The findings suggest that hydromethanol extract of H. annuus is tolerated in short term administration, but long term (up to 90 days) administration at high doses, may elicit hepatic, testicular and nephrotic disorder.
  - 2,099 408
Nano chloroquine delivery against Plasmodium berghei NK65 induced programmed cell death in spleen
Satyajit Tripathy, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Sandeep Kr Dash, Motlalepula G Matsabisa, Somenath Roy
September 2018, 11(9):540-546
Objective: To compare the protective effects of chitosan-trypolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticle conjugated chloroquine(CQ) with effect of CQ alone on the reversal of splenic damages and induction of apoptosis. Methods: Different researches have been carried out to explore the potential role of chitosan based drug delivery system against parasitic diseases. After successive Plasmodium berghei NK65 parasiste infection by intraperitoneal injection in Swiss mice and subsequent parasite development, the ROS generation, anti-apoptotic and pro apoptotic protein levels in spleen were measured. To analyze caspases, flow cytometry study was performed with annexin V -FITC and with PI staining. Results: The results revealed that ROS mediated caspase 3 and 9 activation and the induction of apoptosis occurred during the parasitic infection. However, CS-TPP conjugated CQ was relatively better in reversing the splenic damage compared with similar effects of CQ alone. Conclusions: This study indicates that Plasmodium berghei NK65 induces apoptosis in the spleen. The study further shows that CS-TPP nanoparticles conjugation with CQ have positive influence on the recovery of damaged host’s system towards maintenance of normal homeostasis, and this is shown to be selective to CS-TPP conjugated CQ treated animals only.
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