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   2018| October  | Volume 11 | Issue 13  
    Online since October 18, 2018

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Molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus species in Pakistan
Aisha Khan, Sami Simsek, Haroon Ahmed
October 2018, 11(13):36-36
Objective: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease and a neglected infectious disease affecting more than one million people globally. It is caused by the tapeworm parasite of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. It is endemic in the neighbours of Pakistan. However, there are limited studies on molecular epidemiology of CE in Pakistan. Methods: Discrimination of Echinococcus species has been done mostly by morphologically and less work has been done by molecular methods in Pakistan. There are limited studies have been conducted to explore the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus species in human and livestock. In human just retrospective studies have been conducted and there is a serious lack of studies on molecular basis. Results: So far in Pakistan just four studies have been published on genotyping of Echinococcus spp. common sheep strain (G1) and buffalo strain (G3) in livestock (small and large ruminants) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) in buffaloes, while Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) in human have been reported. Based on these four studies clearly shows that CE is yet neglected in Pakistan. These findings indicate that due to the higher population of sheep and buffaloes, G1 and G3 strains are highly prevalent in human and animals. Association of stray dogs with sheep herds and other livestock at the grazing sites is responsible for the higher prevalence of CE that acts an active role in the transmission of CE while the wild animals and camel are responsible for the less infection. Conclusion: There is dire need of more studies on molecular identification of CE to understand its species diversity and molecular epidemiology in Pakistan. It is an important step toward management of echinococcosis based on One Health Concept.
  1,402 886 1
The Belt and Road Initiative: Challenges and opportunities in tackling emerging infectious diseases
Kwok-Yung Yuen
October 2018, 11(13):13-13
The majority of emerging infectious disease agents affecting human are RNA viruses that originate from animals. Globalization and climate changes continue to reshape the geographical distribution of humans, animals, vectors, and microbes, and allow their mixing to occur at an unprecedentedly high frequency. These have led to interspecies transmission of numerous emerging pathogens in the past decades, such as avian (H5N1 and H7N9) and pandemic (H1N1) influenza viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses. The increasing demand for food, sex, and drugs associated with the rising, mobile and ageing populations and the economic growth in the rapidly developing geographical regions involved in the Belt and Road Initiative may lead to outbreaks of zoonoses, sexually transmitted diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and infections associated with contaminated pharmaceutical products. These outbreaks often occur in the setting of marked lagging in hygiene, public health and regulatory measures and are accompanied by microbial genome adaptation to the changing microbiomes in human, animal and the ecosystem. The outbreak of SARS in 2003 has sparked an explosion of novel coronavirus discovery by virological surveillance in animals and human. The number of coronaviruses has increased from 10 before 2003 to over 40 with complete genomes within the past 14 years. Except for HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63 which are found in human, the majority of these newly discovered coronaviruses are found in bats and birds. In addition to enhancing our understanding in the phylogeny and evolution of coronaviruses, animal surveillance for novel viruses has strategic importance in the control of emerging infectious diseases through genomic analysis, study of pathogenesis, and development of rapid diagnostic tests, antimicrobials, vaccines and infection control strategies.
  1,577 336 -
Helen Keller International and its contribution to elimination of neglected tropical diseases
Yao-bi Zhang, Mary Hodges, John U Davis, Volkan Cakir, Xavier Alterescu, Victoria J Quinn
October 2018, 11(13):20-20
Helen Keller International (HKI) is a non-governmental organization, established in 1915. The mission is to save and improve the sight and lives of the world’s vulnerable by combatting the causes and consequences of blindness, poor health and malnutrition. HKI’s work on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) dates back to 1950s with a pilot program to eliminate blinding trachoma in Taiwan. HKI’s work on trachoma in Tanzania in 1980s and in Morocco in 1990s contributed to the development of the World Health Organization-endorsed SAFE strategy (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement) and the creation of the International Trachoma Initiative dedicated to the elimination of trachoma. HKI is a leader in the control and elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) in Africa and played an important role in developing an innovative strategy: community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) to control onchocerciasis. For its multi-country support to control and eliminate onchocerciasis, HKI was awarded the AGFUND International Prize for Pioneering Development Projects for its “Sustainable Control of Onchocerciasis” program in Africa in 2009. With funding from donors such as USAID, DFID, the END Fund and many others, HKI currently supports 10 African countries to control and eliminate one or more of five major NTDs: lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and trachoma which includes leveraging medicines procured or donated from pharmaceutical companies. HKI aims to build the capacity of Ministries of Health to conduct community mobilization, mass drug administration campaigns, morbidity management, monitoring and evaluation. Over the past 10 years, through its integrated NTD programs, HKI has successfully supported Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone to complete NTD mapping, initiate MDA, scale up to national coverage, monitor the progress, evaluate the impact and scale down (stopping MDA) once objectives have been met. In 2017 alone, across Africa HKI supported the distribution of over 110 million MDA treatments for NTDs as well as the screening of nearly one million individuals for surgery including follow-up surgery for 36000 affected individuals. By 2018, stopping MDA criteria had been achieved for trachoma nationwide in Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Mali and in most endemic districts in Niger, and for LF nationwide in Mali and nearly in Cameroon and in most endemic districts in Burkina Faso, Niger and Sierra Leone. Prevalence levels for onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and STH have also been significantly reduced in these countries. Moving forward, HKI will continue to collaborate with partners to support African governments to achieve NTD elimination goals and sustain the gains through mobilizing resources, building the capacity of Ministries of Health and strengthening existing health systems to integrate NTD activities. Joining this Alliance opens the door for HKI to collaborate with more partners on research and elimination of NTDs.
  1,737 147 -
Echinococcosis in Pakistan: One Belt & One Road Initiative
Aisha Khan, Sami Simsek, Haroon Ahmed
October 2018, 11(13):46-46
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is zoonotic neglected tropical parasitic disease. It is endemic in the some Asian countries like China, Turkey, Iran and India. In Pakistan it is neglected and limited studies have been conducted on epidemiology of CE due to the lack of the fundings. It is not explored yet in Pakistan to estimate incidence and disease burden. In Pakistan recent emergence of CE and its transmission reservoirs are threating to have a higher incidence rate in near future. We are very grateful to Hanian Medical University, China for providing an excellent opportunity under “The Belt and Road Tropical Medical Alliance” which is inspired by the strategy of the “One Belt & One Road Initiative”. This forum will provide direction towards World Health Organization’s call for strengthening tropical disease prevention and research. Taking this opportunity, data on endemicity of CE from Pakistan will be shared in front of scientific community at First International Conference of Tropical Medicine at Hanian Medical University, China. In this way the international cooperation, establishment of research laboratories, collaborative research projects, technology transfer and scientists training will be done under the umbrella of this platform for the screening, control and management of CE in Pakistan. In this international forum of institutions of higher learning, medical institutions, scientific institutions and public health institutions of member countries of “The Belt and Road Tropical Medical Alliance” will not only promote and help the control and management of echinococcosis but also open new directions towards other neglected tropical diseases in Pakistan.
  1,399 239 -
Preparedness and management of emergency evacuation in natural disasters in the showcase of earthquakes
M Ferudun Celikmen, Sina Ercan
October 2018, 11(13):48-48
Buildings that are used as residential areas by humans, mines they work in, vehicles they travel by or snowy mountains they go for sports can turn into deadly traps within seconds due to earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, floods, bombings, traffic accidents or avalanches. Main survival factors in the post-disaster period are prevention injuries as well as detecting the location of the survivors and the rescued. The reality of the situation of persons who lost their lives in such traps, the severely injured, and the ones who survived must be analyzed. Rational prevention methods against possible crush injuries due to collapsing buildings have been considered in the light of the field and simulation experience we gained and suggestions have been presented to reduce mortality and morbidity. Our work has been conducted with the aid of medicine based on proof, appropriate observation as well as sampling and experimental methods. Developed countries with higher building standards and existence have their action plans to construct buildings with, so that those buildings would not collapse in case of earthquakes and similar disasters. Underdeveloped and developing countries on the other hand, usually adopt these plans exactly the same, without questioning against what and why these should be applied. As there are unlimited possibilities of travelling in todays world, it is not possible to estimate place, country or circumstances under which a person could experience a disaster. Therefore a global approach concerning worst case scenario led by earthquakes has been proposed considering different models of behavior in different countries and societies to increase the chance of survival to a maximum and to reduce injuries to a minimum level.
  1,237 262 -
An overview of progress towards Neglected Tropical Disease Control i Sierra Leone
Yakuba M Bah, Mary H Hodges, Mustapha Sonnie, Abdulai Conteh, Jusufu Paye, Mohame S Bah, Amy Veinoglou, Yao-bi Zhang
October 2018, 11(13):18-18
Synergy exists between infectious diseases that target the poor and perpetuate poverty. Common strategies of mass drug administration (MDA) have enabled the control and possible elimination of the five previously neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) to help alleviate poverty. Mapping of five NTDs from 2003-2009 in Sierra Leone found lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic in all 14 districts, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) endemic in all 14 districts with moderate or high prevalence, onchocerciasis endemic in 12 districts and schistosomiasis in 7 (non-coastal) districts, while trachoma was below public health interventio====n significance (<5%). Coordinating with MDA, a national integrated NTD program began in 2008 with funding from United States Agency for International Development and donated or procured medicines. The goal was to eliminate LF and control STH, schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis by year 2020. The program reached full geographic coverage in 2010 with effective programme coverage for all four NTDs each year. By 2016-2018, despite one round of MDA missing due to the Ebola outbreak, LF transmission had been interrupted in 9 districts as shown by LF transmission assessment surveys (TAS), STH and schistosomiasis prevalence had decreased to low or moderate levels in all endemic districts with prevalence of moderate/heavy infection of below 1% and 2% respectively. The burden of onchocerciasis had also decreased significantly, i.e. at baseline the microfilaridermia prevalence (in population of 1 year old and above) using the skin snip biopsy was 53%, while a recent impact assessment using OV16 rapid diagnostic tests showed an antibody prevalence of 2% in children of 5-9 years of age using the LF TAS sampling methodology. Despite the health sectors in Sierra Leone having been severely damaged during the war (1991-2002), with adequate and consistent funding, technical support and drug supplies, Sierra Leone has made remarkable progress towards the control/elimination of four targeted NTDs.
  1,350 149 -
Occurrence and molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan Province: High genetic diversity and zoonotic potential
Wei Zhao, Huan-huan Zhou, Hai-rong Jin, Bing-yong Li, Shan-shan Wang, Li-hua Li, Xiu-ji Cui, Fei-fei Yin, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Gang Lu
October 2018, 11(13):15-15
Objective: Microsporidia have been rapidly emerging as pathogens in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) is the most common microsporidial species found in human. E. bieneusi has also been found in a wide range of animals and is considered to be a potentially important zoonotic pathogen. The epidemiological and genetic characterization of E. bieneusi among long-tailed macaques [Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) is not fully understood. Here, we conducted the first molecular epidemiological investigation of E. bieneusi among M. fascicularis in Hainan Province, the southernmost part of China. Methods: A total of 193 fecal specimens of M. fascicularis were collected from a breeding base housing non-human primates for experimental use in Hainan Province, China. E. bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by constructing a neighboring-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences using MEGA6. Results: A total of 59 (30.6%) of the M. fascicularis were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi. All 59 samples were sequenced successfully and 16 ITS genotypes were identified. These included nine known genotypes: Type IV (n=19), D (n=11), CM1 (n=8), PigEBITS7 (n=4), Pongo2 (n=4), Peru 8 (n=3), Peru11 (n=1), WL21 (n=1) and CM2 (n=1). Additionally, seven novel genotypes named as HNM-I to HNM-VII (one each) were identified. Importantly, genotypes D, Type IV, Peru8, PigEBITS7, and Peru11, which were the predominant (38/59, 64.4%) genotypes identified among M. fascicularis in this study, are also well-known human-pathogenic genotypes. All the genotypes of E. bieneusi identified in this study, including the seven novel ones, belonged to zoonotic group 1. Conclusions: This is the first report of the identification of E. bieneusi in M. fascicularis in Hainan Province, China. The findings of numerous known human-pathogenic types and seven novel genotypes (HNM-I to HNM-VII) of E. bieneusi all belong to zoonotic group 1 indicate the possibility of transmission of this important pathogenic parasite between M. fascicularis and humans.
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Leishmaniases: Still alarming at 2018 in Bangladesh
Md Misbahul Ferdous, Effat Un Nesa, Atm Rezaul Karim
October 2018, 11(13):24-24
All over the world approximately 98 countries faces endemic outbreak of leishmaniases, which is a group of parasitic disease. More than 350 million people reside under the risk of these diseases and new cases per year is about 0.7 to 1.3 million. The culprit and contagious agent Leishmania donovani (L. donovani), which is responsible for leishmaniases are breed mainly in South Asian constituency that harbor’s mainly the visceral leishmaniases (VL) globally. The inter-relationship within main etiological factor (L. donovani & remaining species of leishmaniases) and resultant biological events has been confronted in past years. For this reason there have been accentuated condition of reconsidering the formerly categorization. Rendering to the latest WHO data published in 2017 about leishmaniases death in bangladesh grasped to 988 or 0.13% of total mortality. The age of mortality rate is 0.61 per 100 000 of population, that ranks 7th in whole over the world. This disease can present mainly by three forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and VL. Skin ulcer is the main presentation of cutaneous form, where in the mucocutaneous types, it present with skin ulcer with pyrexia, reduced RBC, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Whereas, VL well known as Kala-a-zar, which is focal, huddled inside the households, as well as typically cope the poor people. Also, VL stretches the poverty episode; nevertheless, loss of throughput and highly expensive treatment policy for affected families. Etiological factors for infectivity including residing area within 50 m fom the infected area or home as well as malnutrition and household ailments including splintered mud wall. Though the vector control is essential requirement for disease abolition, but there has been a noticeable lack of innovations from many years back. In addition, there have been many sorts of remarkable improvement in the field of diagnosis of disease as well as therapeutic intervention and vaccination protocol development. But also many kinds of obstacles arise. For exclusion of L. donovani induced leishmaniasis from the certain region of our country become a challenge, and the reality is an effective amendment of existing and new tools will be essential requirements. Both strong political and active community participation would be imperative, also need inter-country cooperation and mutual partnerships. Furthermore, appropriate diagnostic tools, treatment policies including effective demographic surveillance mandatory for ensure of successful outcome to elimination of L. donovani. Considerable success of operational research activities in early detection of disease and complete treatment, IVM, and clinical research achieved from National L. donovani elimination program. Though the activities need to strengthen their policies fro effective surveillance, behavioral change communication (BCC), monitoring, and evaluation as a whole. The main obstacles for the elimination program are inadequate human sources, funds, and logistics. These constrains may overcome by build up good communication and partnership with national and international organizations, donor agencies, and sponsorship institutions. Also operating wisely and diligently with policy makers to warrant this efficious platform is bearable.
  1,275 187 -
Health situation and challenges in Sri Lanka
Enoka Corea, Panduka Karunanayake, Samitha Ginige
October 2018, 11(13):21-21
Sri Lanka, an island in the Indian Ocean, is 65 610km2 with a population of 21 million (population density 315/km2). It is a low-middle income country with GDP per capita of USD 4 310. However, due to policies of free education and health, it is ranked 73 (among 188 nations) in the human development index. Sri Lankans have a life expectancy of 76 years and literacy of 92%. Infant mortality is 7.45 deaths/ 1 000 live births and maternal mortality is 30 deaths/100 000 live births, with all deliveries taking place in hospitals. Sri Lanka faces major health challenges in a rapidly ageing population and increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death followed by cancer. A third of males smoke and abuse alcohol. Substance abuse is increasing. Snake bite still causes morbidity and mortality. Road accidents have become an important cause of premature deaths. Sri Lanka is at risk for tropical infections which it has been battling in public health campaigns. Some of these have been very successful, with leprosy eliminated as a public health problem in the 1990’s and malaria and lymphatic filariasis in 2016. Rabies will be eliminated as a public health problem in 2020. Tuberculosis remains a challenge with 9 000 new cases annually. However, MDRTB is uncommon. Immunisation coverage is 100% and maternal/neonatal tetanus was eliminated in 2015. Measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome are due for elimination in 2020. Sri Lanka has an extremely low prevalence of HIV (<0.1%) and Hepatitis B and C (<2%). Sanitation coverage is 92% and access to safe drinking water 94%. Hepatitis A and enteric fever rates are low. Cholera was last reported in 2003. However, unplanned urbanization has fueled a dengue epidemic. Leptospirosis is increasing in the rice farming areas. Melioidosis has recently been established as endemic in Sri Lanka. Other emerging infections include amoebic liver disease in the North and rickettsial disease and cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural areas. Sri Lanka faces a grave threat in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Urgent measures are needed to foster antibiotic stewardship as well as prevent and control infectious diseases.
  1,254 205 -
Tropical herbs and spices from Mauritius as alternative biomedicine to manage communicable and non-communicable diseases
Fawzi Mahomoodally
October 2018, 11(13):19-19
Mauritius, is a famous touristic tropical island that forms part of the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The Island is also well known for its rich cultural and ethnic diversity and for its singular flora and fauna. The local population has been relying on traditional medicine including the use of endemic and indigenous plants, herbs and spices as alternative and complementary medicine for the management of common ailments. Indeed, tropical herbs and spices have always been an important source of lead compounds in the drug discovery process. Such traditional system of medicine has been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a panoply of human diseases globally. Over the past years, attempts have been made to document such uses and to validate these traditional claims. This presentation will endeavour to highlight recent progress on the use of herbs and spices in the treatment and/or management of common communicable and non-communicable diseases in light of ethnopharmacological and epidemiological surveys, and in vitro, in vivo and in silico lab-based studies. The ethnopharmacological/epidemiological investigations have led to documentation of several exotic, indigenous and endemic medicinal plant and animal remedies commonly used by Mauritians in the management of diabetes, pain, infectious diseases, against women and paediatric ailments. In vitro and in vivo studies have attempted to validate against non-communicable diseases via inhibition properties against enzymes of clinical relevance (amylase, glucosidase, lipases, and cholisterases). Enzymes kinetics studies have been conducted to determine the mode of inhibition and in silico molecular docking studies used to provide additional insights on the mode of binding of bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and the target enzymes. The plants have also been studied against infectious diseases via evaluation of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant strains, biofilm eradication potential, and antibiotic potentiating activity). Data amassed so far from the Mauritian flora has shown that the local tropical biodiversity can be an important sustainable source of biomedicines for future drug development programs.
  1,245 207 -
Evaluation of the leprosy control programme surveillance system in Kwara State, Nigeria, 2010 - 2014
Olaolu Moses Aderinola, A Abubakar, Gabriele Poggensee, Adewale Oyeleke Adeoti, Michael Sunday Oguntoye, Patience Abimbola Folorunso
October 2018, 11(13):22-22
Objective: Leprosy is a chronic, infectious disease complicated with blindness and loss of fingers/toes in some cases. Though the disease is targeted for eradication in Nigeria, the country had the 6th highest prevalence globally in 2013. This study was conducted to evaluate the leprosy surveillance system in Kwara State, assessing its operations, attributes and determining its usefulness. Method: The 2001 updated guidelines for evaluating public health systems of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was used. Key informant interviews were done with the State Tuberculosis and Leprosy (TBL) Control Officer, and the State Epidemiologists to assess the importance of the public health, purpose and operation of the surveillance system, resources used to operate it as well as the attributes of the system. Questionnaires were administered to Local Government Area TBL supervisors to assess the attributes of the surveillance system. Surveillance data from 2010 to 2014 was analyzed and data quality determined. Results: Incidence of leprosy over the five year period 2010 – 2014 was 62.0%, 59.0%, 54.0%, 67.0%, and 42.0% respectively, with occurrence of the multi-bacillary type in 83.1% to 90.7% newly detected cases. The system was found to be 51.0% sensitive(most hospitals do not have treatment forms for health workers use, community awareness programmes was done in 53.0% of local government areas in last 3 months, contact tracing was however always done), 90.0% simple, 93.0% acceptable and 95.0% timely. Data system was both paper and electronics, based on collection, collation, analysis and reporting done quarterly in a year. The surveillance system is donor-driven and fully integrated with that of tuberculosis and buruli ulcer. Annual surveillance expenditure was about $2 500. Conclusion: Kwara State Leprosy Surveillance System has a low sensitivity with delayed case detection. Training of health workers on early case detection, provision of treatment forms and more community awareness will improve the surveillance system’s sensitivity.
  1,266 182 -
TRPM8 is overexpressed in the respiratory tract of steroid-naive asthma patients
Denis Naumov, Dina Gassan, Kseniya Kilimichenko, Evgeniya Afanaseva, Elizaveta Sheludko, Victor Kolosov, Xiang-dong Zhou
October 2018, 11(13):16-16
Background: TRPM8 is a member of TRP channels family known for its sensitivity to cool temperature, increased osmotic pressure, particulate matter, cigarette smoke and products of oxidative stress. This cation channel is widely expressed in the respiratory tract including airway epithelium and vagal nerve endings where it can mediate inflammatory and secretory responses. Previous studies have reported the increased expression of TRPM8 in the respiratory tract of COPD patients. Objective: To investigate TRPM8 expression in nasal epithelium and induced sputum of asthma patients and to estimate its relation to airway hyperresponsiveness induced by cold air. Methods: The study enrolled 43 subjects with mean age of (39.8±1.76) years including 35 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and 8 patients with chronic bronchitis. Among the asthma patients 43% were steroid-naïve. Lung function was measured by standard spirometry before and after bronchoprovocation challenge with 3 min isocapnic cold air (-20 °C) hyperventilation. Cold air hyperresponsiveness was diagnosed in case of FEV1 falling by 10% from baseline. TRPM8 expression was measured by indirect flow cytometry in nasal brushings and induced sputum. Nasal epithelium cells were gated after exclusion of dead cells and staining with anti- cytokeratin 19 antibodies. Induced sputum was processed with dithiothreitol, filtered and stained for CD45 and cell viability. Extracellular expression of TRPM8 was detected by staining with primary unconjugated anti-TRPM8 antibodies (Alomone Labs) and secondary antibodies labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 (Abcam). Expression level was calculated as normalized median fluorescence intensity (nMFI) and percent of positively stained cells (%Pos). The data are presented as median, lower and upper quartiles (Me (Q1; Q3)). Results: TRPM8 protein was detected on the epithelial cells and sputum macrophages. The expression levels of TRPM8 were significantly correlated in these cells (nMFI R=0.41, P=0.04; %Pos R=0.53, P=0.008). Expression of TRPM8 was increased both in nasal epithelium and macrophages of steroid-naïve asthma patients as compared to the patients receiving maintenance therapy or patients with chronic bronchitis. nMFI values for macrophages were 2.1 (1.95; 2.79), 1.3 (1.10; 1.91) and 1.2 (1.06; 1.35), respectively (P=0.001). %Pos values for macrophages were 38.5 (13.1; 51.1)%, 11.6 (2.55; 20.1)% and 8.0 (3.20; 9.20)%, respectively (P=0.01). nMFI and %Pos values for the epithelium kept the same trend but the differences were mostly insignificant. In addition, we found a correlation between FEV1 in response to cold air hyperventilation challenge and TRPM8 expression (macrophages %Pos R=-0.43, P=0.02; epithelium %Pos R=- 0.43, P=0.08). Cold airway hyperresponsiveness was accompanied by higher TRPM8 expression on macrophages (21.6 (17.1; 40.7)% vs. 11.6 (7.45; 16.55)%, P=0.03) and nasal epithelium (4.2 (3.30; 5.40)% vs. 2.8 (1.10; 4.30)%, P=0.2). Cold airway hyperresponsiveness was not affected by maintenance therapy in our patients. Conclusions: TRPM8 is overexpressed in steroid-naïve asthma patients as well as in asthma patients with cold airway hyperresponsiveness and may be implicated in asthma pathogenesis. The utility of TRPM8 as a diagnostic biomarker or therapeutic target in chronic obstructive airway diseases is of great interest.
  1,239 205 1
Pig IFITMs are restriction factors for Japanese encephalitis virus
Zhao Xu, Wei-zhen Gu, Ji-chu Xue, Wen-ming Zheng, Hong-ge Chen, Su-gai Yin, Jun Xu
October 2018, 11(13):14-14
Objective: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is responsible for one of the most serious epidemics of encephalitis in the world. JEV uses pigs as its main hosts and spreads among vertebrates and humans mediated by Culex mosquitoes. The prevention and control of JEV spread in pigs is one of the most effective measures to protect global public health. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are small membrane-spanning proteins that were identified as innate antiviral factors against multiple pathogenic viruses, especially enveloped viral pathogens. This study aims to verify whether pig interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (pIFITMs) inhibit JEV and investigate the related molecular mechanisms of anti-JEV. Methods: Transient expression and RNA interference technology were used to overexpress and silence IFITMs gene. Three different cell lines, PK15, HEK293 and Huh7, were transfected with recombinant pIFITMs-expressing plasmids. The lentiviral vectors harboring RNAi sequences targeting pIFITMs were introduced into PK15 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the antiviral activities of pIFITMs through measuring and analyzing the virus copy number of JEV (SA14-14-2 strain) in the supernant of pIFITMs overexpression or silencing cells 48 hours post transfection. The expression of the related proteins was examined by western blot. The fusion vectors inserted with pig IFITM1-EGFP were constructed and introduced into three different cell lines respectively. Then Laser Co-focus light microscopy was used to observe the subcellular localization. The key active amino acids of pIFITM1 were analyzed by investigating the anti-JEV effect of the cysteine mutants produced with PCR site directed mutagenesistechnology. Results: In three different cell lines, PK15, HEK293 and Huh7, all of three pig IFITM proteins, pIFITM1, pIFITM2, and pIFITM3 could inhibit the replication of JEV whether through transient gene over-expression methods or RNA interference silencing. And that, among three pig IFITMs, pIFITM1 showed the strongest anti-JEV effect. The anti-JEV activity of pIFITM1 manifested at the early entry stage. In PK15, BHK21, and HEK293 cells, before virus infection, pIFITM1 was located in the plasma membrane area, and after infection, transferred to the membranous structures outside the nucleus. The S-palmitoylated cysteines at position 50, 51 and 84 of pIFITM1 had significant effect on virus replication. Conclusions: Pig interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins are restriction factors for JEV infection and have potentials in the prevention of virus spread. Our results provide some new sights into understanding the antiviral activity of pig IFITMs.
  1,280 160 -
Strengthening medical education through intersectoral collaboration: Current practices in Faculty of Medicine, University of Riau, Indonesia
Dedi Afandi, Dewi Anggraini, Arfianti , Elda Nazriati, Suyanto
October 2018, 11(13):23-23
Intersectoral collaboration between and within sectors is crucial to the success of primary health care and fast-tracks the attainment of sustainable development goals (SDGs). Faculty of Medicine University of Riau (FMUR) commits to support these goals by producing high quality medical doctors to contribute to the improvement of community health status at the local and national levels. Having strategic geographical location (between South China Sea and Straits of Malacca) and homing for palm oil plantations, oil companies, paper and pulp mills, Riau Province is becoming one of the economic growth centers in Indonesia. Meanwhile, Riau is also facing challenges in health care service including endemicity of infection diseases (most importantly tuberculosis), triple burden of malnutrition (undernutrition, obesity and stunting) and the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases. FMUR has collaborated with health, industrial and government sectors as an attempt to expose students with real work environment. Medical students have ample opportunities to learn in several affiliated hospitals including referral provincial and district hospitals. In addition to facility support, intersectoral collaboration involves guest lectures, funding assistance and expertise sharing. In agreement with the centre of excellence, FMUR implements three pillars of higher education comprising of educational activities, research, and community services based on local needs namely marine, coastal and cross-border area. Our curricula has also been designed to meet with the local needs and facilitate the involvement of various agencies by developing courses such as health management, complementary medicine, and border health. In order to strengthen institutional capacity, FMUR has collaborated with other international and national educational institutes through joint research, scientific meetings and conferences. FMUR also supports for international student exchange to enhance interaction, cross-cultural exchange, and mutual intellectual interests between international and local students. The sustainability of intersectoral collaboration needs both effective communication and the development of professional relationships. Some issues pertaining to intersectoral collaboration are lack of practical initiatives from health and government sectors towards intersectoral collaboration, differences in sectoral policy and regulation and lack of budgeting.
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Prevalence of hydatidosis in livestocks in Chakwal District of Pakistan
Aisha Khan, Hamza Farooq, Sami Simsek, Muhammad Asif Gondal, Haroon Ahmed
October 2018, 11(13):34-34
Background: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease and a serious human and animal health problem in many endemic areas of the world. It is caused by the tapeworm parasite of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. This parasite is endemic in the neighboring countries like China, Iran and India. There are limited studies on CE in Pakistan. Methods: This study primarily aimed to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in slaughtered livestocks in Chakwal district (Chakwal, Bhaun, Kallar kahar, Choa saidan shah and Balkasar) from June to December 2015. The livestocks were inspected after slaughtering and the ages, breeds and organ wise prevalence were recorded. Results: A total of 6 095 animals (sheep, goat, buffaloes and cattle) of different genders, ages and breeds were inspected after slaughtering. Overall prevalence was 8.55% (88/1 045) in sheep followed by 8.42% (88/1 045), 6.90% (4/58), 2.99% (138/4 608) in cattle, buffaloes and goats, respectively. Liver wise prevalence was 7.75%, 6.90%, 0.06%, 1.30% in cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep, respectively while lung wise prevalence was 7.55%, 0.67%, 0.00%, 0.00%, in sheep, cattle, buffaloes and goats, respectively. Male (9.50%) were more infected than female (1.96%) in all hosts. Breed wise prevalence was higher in desi breed of cattle followed by crossbreed and other breeds. In goats, teddhi breed was more infected then beetal while in sheep Afghani breed was more infected than the others. Cattle of 6-9 years groups were more infected than 0-3 and 3-6 years age groups. Buffaloes of the only age group of 6-9 years were infected while in goat and sheep 3-6 years were more infected than 0-3 years. According to the statistical analysis there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence of hydatidosis when ages, genders and organs were compared. Conclusion: The hydatidosis is a serious parasitic problem in the study area for livestocks. The disease should be monitored on regular basis in other areas of Pakistan and future studies should be carried out to explore the real prevalence in Pakistan.
  1,193 209 -
A study on the stable inheritance of chromosome aberration karyotype in three families of two generations in Hainan province
Yun-chun Chen, Jian-dong Hu, Xin-ping Chen, Yu-ni Xu, Xiao-qiang Cao, Chun-jiao Zheng, Li-ying Lin, Zhong-yuan Zhu
October 2018, 11(13):31-31
Objective: To examine chromosomes of a total of 10 857 people who asked for prenatal genetic counseling in our hospital from February 1994 to July 2018. The important diagnostic reference index for the clinical diagnosis, screening for genetic abnormality and carrying out appropriate guidance have been done for them to adopt appropriate prenatal strategies and realize a first-degree prevention and control of birth defects. Methods: Routine G banding analysis was performed on genetic counselors. C banding, N banding analysis and whole genome sequencing were performed according to abnormal karyotypes. Results: The chromosome aberration karyotype 46, X, inv(Y)(p11.2q11.2) pat/45, X pat, number: 3 574 was found and reported for the first time across the globe; Besides, this aberrant chromosome karyotype experienced stable inheritance of two generations in 8 adult males of three families. Conclusions: The adult males in three families have normal phenotype and they can still have normal fertility. Among those people, no pathogenic gene has been detected and no genetic material has lost or increased. The same aberration karyotype has been found in all 8 adult males of two generations. The ratio of these two generations’ karyotype is one out of ten thousand. As a rare genetic polymorphism, the abnormal karyotype can be regarded as an evolutionary marker, and play a unique role in paternity testing. In addition, the inverted Y chromosome can also be used to study the route of population migration. As a marker of genetic relationship, it may provide a method to study population genetics and historical geography.
  1,198 171 -
Correlation between quality of drinking water sources and meteorological factors in 2013-2017, Haikou, South China
Gao-yao Hu, Feng-Liang , Ji-zhen Wu, Hui Kuang, Zhi-ming Zhang, Wen-fang Long
October 2018, 11(13):38-38
Objective: With the increasing attention to health influence by ecology environment and climate changes, it is important to explore the characters of drinking water quality and meteorological factors at tropical areas of South China. This study aims to study the water quality of municipal source water and to elucidate the relationship between water quality changes and climatic factors at Haikou. Methods: By analyzing the data of water quality indexes of source water in the past five years from July 2013 to April 2017, the representative indexes as following were analyzed: Fecal coliforms (FC), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+), Nitrate(NO3-), iron(Fe), permanganate Index(CODMn), fluoride(F), arsenic(As), chloride (Cl-). The methods of normal test, rank test and rank correlation were used to explore the water quality and the infuence by precipitation, temperature and sunshine. Results: Only the CODMn was normal distribution for the above indexes. For the five years, Mean of FC was of 110 MPN/L, NH4+ was 0.18 mg/L, Fe was 1.07 mg/L, CODMn was 1.67 mg/L, F was 0.14 mg/L, As was 0.0020 mg/L, NO3- was 1.12 mg/L, Cl- was 7.10mg/L. By the rank correlation test, CODMn, NH4+ and Fe was positive correlated with temperature, it was respectively (r=0.483, P=0.049), (r=0.310, P=0.045), (r=0.423, P=0.039). There is negative correlation for nitrate and chloride between temperature, it is respectively (r=-0.577, P=0.003) (r=-0.317, P=0.042); the indicators are not related to other two climatic factors. Conclusion: The source water has a higher concentration of iron. The temperature is an important factor that affects the local source water quality of Haikou. It is necessary to strengthen removing CODMn, NH4+ and Fe at the torrid period for drinking.
  1,201 166 -
A study on the optimization and characteristics of enzymatic preparation of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam (Jackfruit) seed resistant starch
Gui-hong Fang, Yu Tao, Xiao-bao Deng, Jing Zhou, Da-mou Zhan, Qun-yu Gao
October 2018, 11(13):39-39
Objective: With the development of the Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam (A. heterophyllus) processing industry, A. heterophyllus Lam seed as by-products, usually are cooked to eat or discarded, and no industrial application has yet been discovered in china. It is especially important to study the nutrients of A. heterophyllus Lam seed and to develop and utilize them. A. heterophyllus Lam seeds are rich in starch. At present, there are few reports on the processing of native starch of A. heterophyllus Lam seed and its modification as well as the application. To find the best way to prepare the resistant starch of A. heterophyllus Lam seed and to witness the changes in starch properties before and after the treated starch molecules. Methods: A. heterophyllus Lam seed starch was used as raw material in this paper and was treated by autoclaving and pullulanase debranching to produce resistant starch. Resistant starch content was confirmed by a resistant starch assay kit from Megazyme, Ireland, according to the AOAC 2002.02 standard method recommended by the American Society of Analytical Chemists. Taking resistant starch content as an indicator, the single factor and L9 (34) orthogonal experiment were used to optimize the processing parameters. Electronic scanning microscopy, X-diffraction and Differential scanning calorimetry were used to characterize native starch and treated starch molecules. Results: The optimal preparation process for preparing the resistant starch of A. heterophyllus Lam seed was starch milk concentration with the ratio of 15%, with enzyme15 ASPU/g, and with enzyme treatment time in 24 h, and starch retrograde time in 24 h. The resistant starch content was 25.82%. After being treated, A. heterophyllus Lam seed starch became a sheet with a large number of micropore. Crystal of starch changed from A type to B+V type, and the gelatinization temperature range became wider and gelatinization enthalpy value became decreaser. Conclusions: Resistant starch content of A. heterophyllus Lam seed starch was greatly improved after being treated. High resistant starch content of the treated starch indicates that it can be used as one of the carbohydrate components in diabetic foods to control blood sugar. The porous structure of the treated A. heterophyllus Lam seed starch indicates that it can be used for advanced controlled release of bioactive extracts.
  1,197 170 -
Viral metagenomics analysis of poultry faeces in live poultry market, Haikou, China
Fei-fei Yin, You Zhang, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Xiu-ji Cui, Jing-long Chen, Yi-ji Li, Lang-yu Rao, Li-hua Li, Shan-shan Wang, Yue Wu, Huan-huan Zhou, Wen-qi Wang, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Gang Lu
October 2018, 11(13):41-41
Objective: To conduct in-depth study of the distribution and diversity of viruses in poultry is of great importance in monitoring the emergence of interspecies transmission of novel viruses that may cause epidemics with public health significance. Poultry is an economically important source of meat, eggs and feathers which plays an important role as natural reservoirs of many pathogenic viruses. Compared with wild animals, poultry have more frequent interactions and therefore opportunities to transmit their viruses to human. Methods: To study the viromes of different types of poultry in Hainan, China, we used metagenomics for deep viral nucleic acid sequencing of the faecal samples collected from chickens, ducks and pigeons from a live poultry market in Haikou. Result: The poultry viromes were identified by sequence similarity comparisons of viral reads (BLASTxE score, <5) against viral reference database. A total of 15 309 viral reads were obtained, approximately 13 063, 1 370 and 876 viral reads were generated from the chicken, duck, pigeon faecal samples, respectively. The majority of the sequences were homologous to the animal virus of Adenoviridae, Herpeaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, Retroviridae, Circoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Astroviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Orthomyxoviridae. The VP4 and VP7 segments of a pigeon rotavirus, similar to fox rotavirus in group A, were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The near full genome of a pigeon circovirus was also analyzed. Conclusion: The major types of poultry in a Haikou harbor many different families of viruses in their feces which may have the potential for interspecies transmissions. Further studies should be conducted to identify the most prevalent and important viruses among a larger number of poultry in Haikou and other areas in Hainan.
  1,177 188 -
Investigation on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Sanya from 2012 to 2016
Qiong-jun Xu, Li-kang Li, Ri-fei Yang, Jing Zhou
October 2018, 11(13):44-44
Objective: To understand the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection in genital tract in Sanya, and to provide scientific basis for adjusting the existing prevention and control measures. Methods: The cases of C. trachomatis infection in genital tract reported by medical institutions in Sanya from 2012 to 2016 were collected through the disease information management system for descriptive epidemiological analysis. Results: The average annual incidence of C. trachomatis infection in genital tract of Sanya from 2012 to 2016 was 273.02 per 100 000, with an average annual growth rate of 8.40%, and the incidence of C. trachomatis infection in genital tract has been increasing for 5 years (χ2=55.591, P< 0.001). The cumulative number of reported cases of C. trachomatis infection in genital tract in males was 2 617, and that in females was 5 287, the ratio between men and women was 0.49:1. The difference in the incidence rate between men and women was statistically significant(P < 0.05). The cumulative number of reported cases in Tianya District was the highest (7 662 cases), followed by Haitang District (242 cases), and no cases were reported in township hospitals and community health service centers. In the age distribution, the incidence of C. trachomatis infection in genital tract was the highest in the group aged 20-29 years, which was 155.30/100 000, and lowest in the group aged over 60 years, which was 0.97/100 000. The occupation was mainly engaged in houseworkers or unemployed and commercial services. Conclusions: At present, the incidence of C. trachomatis infection in genital tract of Sanya is at a high level. It is necessary to expand screening, strengthen education, and attention should be paid to reduce cross-infection and monitoring drug-resistant strains.
  1,192 161 -
Molecular cloning and characterization of (β -1, 3-Dextran gene (Glu) in endangered tropic medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale
Li-cheng Guo, Na Li, Ming-ming Zhao
October 2018, 11(13):32-32
Objective: Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) (D. officinale) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. It is mainly distributed in south China, and is often used as auxiliary treatment for a variety of tropical diseases. The strictly demanding for growing environment and climate conditions making its wild resources endangered. In nature, the relationship between seeds of D. officinale and fungi must be established by symbiotic system. Our purpose is to analyze the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process, and provide scientific basis for the protection of its germplasm resources. Methods: Beta-1,3-glucan (Glu) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines, which is essential to the basic physiological and biochemical processes of plants. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Glu gene was obtained from symbiotic germinating seeds of medicinal plants by rapid amplified cDNA terminal (RACE) - PCR, and its expression characteristics were analyzed for the first time. Results: Glu has a full length cDNA of 1 317 bp, with one open reading frame (ORF). The deduced protein was 356 amino acids (aa) with molecular weight of 37.24 KDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.17. The deduced β-1,3-Dextran protein, without signal peptide, had three transmembrane domain each contained 23,17 and 20 aa. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence similarity between beta-1,3-glucan and rice beta-1,3-glucan was higher than that of dicotyledons. The expression pattern analyzed by qPCR showed that Glu transcripts were expressed in four tissues (non-infected fungi) without significant change. In symbiotic germinating seeds, the expression level is 23.67 times higher than that of ungerminated seeds. Conclusion: These results indicated that β-1,3-Dextran was possible involved in the symbiotic seed germination of D. officinale, and played an important role in the symbiosis system of mycorrhizal mutual.
  1,179 170 -
Global health in tropical medicine: Developed at the Center for International Health Research and Exported to the World
Hannah Wu, Jennifer Friedman, Jonathan Kurtis
October 2018, 11(13):17-17
Center for International Health Research (CIHR) was founded in 2005 with the mission to apply interdisciplinary perspectives to research and training to improve the health of populations in developing countries. CIHR has a fully equipped modern research laboratory located at the Claverick Research Building of the Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University school of Medicine. CIHR faculty have been working on projects trying to understand the mechanisms of morbidity due to parasitic diseases, primarily malaria, and schistosomiasis, among children and pregnant women living in the endemic areas. Vaccine identification and development for falciparum malaria and Asiatic schistosomiasis are another focus of the Center’s goal of improving human health. CIHR has applied a “field to laboratory to field” approach and conducted cutting edge research from basic science to complex biostatistical modeling. This approach collects data in the field, returns samples to the laboratory to understand mechanisms of disease or identify vaccine candidates, and then uses this to design new interventions or test vaccine candidates. Our research project “Schistosoma japonicum and pregnancy outcomes: An RCT” strongly influenced the modification of WHO’s schistosomiasis treatment guideline to pregnancy women. Using whole proteome differential screening approach, we identified pfSEA-1, a promising malaria vaccine candidate with findings published in Science. Our collaborative work with scientists from China and The Philippines, clarified the critical role of water buffalo in schistosomiasis transmission in The Philippines. Our center is currently conducting studies of three vaccine candidates for malaria and schistosomiasis in large animal trials in the US (malaria), and The Philippines and China (schistosomiasis). We have four ongoing NIH funded R01 projects with collaborators from Kenya, the Philippines, and China. We’ve also trained students and scholars from more than five countries. CIHR looks forward to expanding our efforts in combating the tropical diseases with stronger partnership and multinational collaborations.
  1,173 171 -
Identification of filaria species with microscopic methods in Bintan Island, Province of Riau Islands
Lilly Haslinda, Yolazenia , Esy Maryanti, Ning Azura, Mislindawati
October 2018, 11(13):47-47
Objective: The regency of Bintan Island is on the coast, mangrove forests area, so it becomes a potential area for breeding places of filariasis vector. This study aims to determine the number of filariasis cases based on age, sex, occupation and microscopic species identification of microphilaria species. Methods: Blood samples were collected for identification by microscopics with thick blood preparation and Giemsa staining. Results: Total of 20 blood samples were collected and tested. Filariasis case in Bintan Regency Riau Islands Province were founded in 3 Districts including Bintan Bay (42%), Seri Lobam (14%) and the highest filariasis incidence rate was in TelukSebongSub-district (44%). Filariasis cases were more common in males than females. The age group of 15 -60 years suffered most from filariasis. More filariasis patients work outside the room than in indoor work. Of the 20 peripheral blood samples, 3 (15%) were found positive for filaria and 17 (85%) negative. The species showed the cause of filariasis is Brugia malayi, no other specie was found. Factors that affect the high incidence of filariasis includeed climate, geography, biological environment, forests, beaches, swamps, vectors (mosquitoes), work, knowledge, attitude and behavior. Conclusions: Brugia malayi is usually found in coastal areas, river basins, swamps and rice fields.
  1,153 186 -
Antibiotic resistance characteristic and genes analysis of a marine water sourced Klebsiella pneumoniae
Feng Liang, Gao-yao Hu, Ji-zhen Wu, Meng-mi Wei, Ya-li Zheng, Mei-xiu Zhou, Yan Lin, Miao Zhou, Wen-fang Long
October 2018, 11(13):42-42
Objective: Both antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARBs) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) are considered as one of the most dangerous environmental pollutants in the 21st century by the WHO. This study aims to understand the ARGs of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) with multiple drug resistance bacterium from the marine water collected from a beach at Sanya Bay, and to explore the antibiotic resistance mechanism of the K. pneumoniae, providing a basis for exploring the transfer of drug resistance genes of beach, and preventing and controlling the health risk of entertainment population. Methods: The sample of marine water were collected and screened by Mcconkey plate. The drug sensitive test was detected by Merieux VITEK2, The DNA was extracted and one strain of 16srDNA was sequenced and identified as K. pneumoniae. Whole-genome resequencing was performed using Illumina HiseqXten platform, and the obtained sequences were compared with NCBI blasting. The reference bacterium were multi-resistant K. pneumoniae HS11286. Plasmids were extracted and the resistant genes were identified. Results: The ARGs encoding protein was 117/4801 (identity > 40%) and the carrying rate was 2.436 9%. The identity of following ARGs of OKPB, sul1, rpoB, ef-tu, phoP, sul2, AAC(6’)-ib-cr, QnrB, floR, aadA16 were more than 99%. The strain showed resistance to ampicillin, ticacillin/clavulanic acid and chloramphenicol, and was intermediate to ampicillin/sulbactam, compound sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, minocycline. Preliminary positioning showed that Qnrs, sul1, tetA, cat, QacE were carried on plasmid. Conclusion: The multiple drug resistant bacteria strain has a variety of different resistant phenotypes, some ARGs can be easily spread by plasmid. It probably will bring exposure risk to people for entertainment. Sensibility of some antibiotics were on the brink of resistance, It is necessary to tracking corresponding antibiotics pollution and strengthening monitoring of ARBs and mobile resistant elements of bacteria.
  1,188 132 -
The influence of overexpressions of microRNA-375 on the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-4, IL-13 in allergic rhinitis mice
Yi-long Wang, Zhong-lin Mu
October 2018, 11(13):43-43
Objective: To detect the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-4, IL- 13 (interleukin-4, interleukin-13) through overexpression of microRNA-375 in allergic rhinitis (AR) mice. Methods: AR mice models with overexpression of miRNA375 were induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in Lentivirus overexpression vector AR group (Overexpression vector+OVA), lentivirus control vector AR group (Control vector+OVA) as well as AR (OVA) group. While saline was administered in control (Saline) group, nasal mucosa of each group were collected for further use. Relative expressions of TSLP and IL-4, IL-13 mRNA and proteins were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results: Real-time fluorescence quantitative method verified the overexpression of miRNA375 in allergic rhinitis group, and the same method has been adopted to verify the expressions of IL-4 and IL-13 genes in the overexpression group. The relative expressions of TSLP and IL-4, IL-13 mRNA and protein decreased in overexpression of microRNA-375 nasal mucosa compared with AR group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results indicated that the lentivirus in the nasal mucosa of mice with allergic rhinitis may affect the expression of IL-4, IL-13 and TSLP, and the expression of lentivirus in the nasal mucosa of mice with allergic rhinitis is different from that in the miR-375 lentivirus group. The expression of lentivirus in the nasal mucosa of mice with allergic rhinitis was different.
  1,124 187 -
Bacillomycin D-like compounds isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HAB-2 are effective against Burkholderia pseudomallei
Xun Kang, Xin Chen, Peng-fei Jin, Xian-hua Qu, Hua Pei, Qing-hui Sun, Su-fang Dong, Wei-guo Miao, Qian-feng Xia
October 2018, 11(13):33-33
Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is a gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis. It has high mortality and relapse rates regardless of powerful antibiotic therapy. Bacterial pathogens display versatile gene expression to adapt to changing surroundings, especially when they are infected by drugs. A cyclic lipopeptide was isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HAB-2, which is a bacillomycin D-like compound, named as bacillomycin DC. It is a potent fungicide against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. Methods: We used this kind of bacillomycin DC to be inhibitor of Bp and in order to find out how does it infect the bacterial pathogens. We observed the morphological changes under transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) when BP is in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftazidime and bacillomycin DC. Then we used quantificationgene Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure the expression of three drug-assistant genes including MexB, qnrS and oprD2, respectively. Results: Bacillomycin DC treatment caused changes in the shape and microstructure, and the bacterial outer membrane were damaged, the leakage of the cell were observed. The expression level of mexb gene was not high until 72h after ceftazidime and bacillomycin DC treatment. Both ceftazidime and bacillomycin DC caused high expression of oprD2, but higher expression level proves that the DC works more efficiently and quickly. Bacillomycin DC increased the expresssion level of bacteria qnrS gene in 24 h, which proved this compound injured the DNA helicase and topoisomerase of the bacteria in a short time. The results showed that the bacillomycin DC had better inhibitory effects. We also found out that different mechanism of action between ceftazidime and bacillomycin DC. Conclusion: The bacillomycin DC makes bacterial pathogen display more oprD2 and qnrS, which respectively means bacterial pathogen are sensitive to the bacillomycin DC and its DNA gyrase are injured. In short, our study showed for the first time that bacillomycin DC can inhibit Bp in a short time.
  1,155 134 -
Preparation and immune in chickens of pulsatile delivery system for inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine
Jun Li
October 2018, 11(13):27-27
Due to the weak immunogenicity, traditional inactivated vaccines need to use adjuvants and multiple doses to generate effective immune protection. Therefore, in theory and practice, it is valuable to develop a vaccine delivery system with an adjuvant effect, which can be carried out in a single dose. In view of this, inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with different release characteristics were prepared. Two release peaks of four groups of microspheres were observed during in vitro release test. The first release peak came out on the first day. The second release peak of A microspheres appeared at the 7th week. The second release peak of B microspheres appeared at the 5th week. The second release peaks of C and D microspheres all appeared at the 11th week. The release of C microspheres contrast to D microspheres was more smooth at release peak, so A, B, C microspheres were selected to construct the pulsatile system. Thus inactivated Newcastle disease(ND) vaccine pulsatile release systems using an appropriate combination of vaccine microspheres with a suitable release characteristics was constituted . Then their immune effects on chickens were evaluated. Chickens without maternal antibodies against NDV were grouped randomly and then immunized with NDV-PLGA microsphere vaccine and inactivated ND vaccine respectively. The results show that inactivated NDV-PLGA microsphere vaccine had the effect of pulsatile release in chickens and were able to maintain high and constant antibody level. And the pulsatile release system composed of mixed microspheres had the best immune effect. This study demonstrated that inactivated NDV-PLGA microsphere pulsatile release system with reasonable release interval could realize effective immune protection in a long time by a single injection. This was the first ever report on PLGA microspheres-based pulsatile release system for inactivated NDV vaccine.
  1,122 160 -
The first laboratory-confirmed SFTS case from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region importing to Hainan International Tourism Island
Li-ying Zhu, Fei-fei Yin, Abulimiti Moming, Bo Wang, Li-juan Gao, Jian-wen Ruan, Na Wu, You Zhang, Hua-lin Wang, Zhi-hong Hu, Gang Lu, Fei Deng, Shu Shen
October 2018, 11(13):28-28
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an acute infectious disease caused by a tick-borne phlebovirus, which was reported to be continuously epidemic in Japan, Korea and in 23 provinces of China since 2010. Most laboratory-confirmed SFTS cases in China have been recorded in 18 Eastern and Central provinces. A few suspected cases with SFTS-like symptoms were reported to the Chinese Disease Prevention and Control Information System from provinces including Guangxi, Guangdong, Gansu and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XJUAR), however diagnosis was not confrimed due to lack of molecular biological and virological evidence. Here we reported the first laboratory-confirmed SFTS case in 2017. A resident of Hainan International Tourism Island (HNITI) was bitten by ticks when traveling in XJUAR and had illness onset after returning to HNITI. RT-PCR detected SFTSV RNA in the patient’s serum samples. Antibodies against SFTSV were detected from the patient and the neutralization from serum samples was evaluated. And the samples of person who had close contact to the patient were also investigated. Moreover, a new SFTSV strain was isolated from the serum sample collected from the patient during acute phase of disease. The viral properties and phylogeny were further characterized. In addition, SFTSV was detected positive in ticks collected from XJUAR in 2017, which suggested that SFTSV was more widely distributed than we recognized. Therefore, this study identified the first SFTS case from XJUAR where confirmed cases have never been reported and demonstrated the substantial risk from SFTSV infection via tick bite there. It is also the first importing SFTS case in HNITI, which showed the significant role of human transport in disease spread and indicated that the recently authorized international tourism island may face more challenges for controlling other importing cases from different areas and countries.
  1,116 166 -
Role of NF- κ B signaling pathway in airway inflammation of rats induced by atmospheric PM25
Ru-xuan Zhang, Na Li, Jin Jin, Ting-ting Jiang, Yu-wei Wu, Li-ting Zhou
October 2018, 11(13):40-40
Objective: To define the effect of PM2.5 exposure on NF- κ B signaling pathway and airway inflammation, and to reveal the role of NF- K B signaling pathway in airway inflammation induced by atmospheric PM2.5 in rats. Air pollution condition plays an important role in inflammatory response process. Previous studies had suggested that atmospheric PM2.5 was a common environmental problem, influencing almost 98% Southeast Asian populations. Therefore, to study the effect of atmospheric PM2.5 on airway inflammation and its mechanism is of great significance. Methods: Atmospheric PM2.5 from urban traffic trunk roads was collected and prepared into the dry powder. Twenty-four wistar rats (half male and half female) were divided into four groups. Rats in low concentration, middle concentration and high concentration groups were given PM2.5 saline suspension of respectively 1.5, 7.5, 37.5 mg/kg by intratracheal instillation, while rats in control group were given saline. HE stain was used to observe the inflammation reaction of the airway tissue. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats’ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were measured with ELISA. The expression level of IκB-α protein in the airway of rats was detected by western blot. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The organ coefficient of trachea in the group receiving 1.5 mg/kg PM2.5 was significantly higher than that in control group. In group receiving 7.5 mg/kg PM2.5, the lung tissue inflammation was obvious and the structure damage was mild, while in group of 37.5 mg/kg PM2.5, the airway inflammation was mild and the structure damage was severe. In the serum of rats exposed to the 1.5 mg/kg PM2.5, the level of inflammatory factor TNF-a was significantly lower than that in the control group. The level of TNF-a in BALF of rats exposed to PM2.5 was higher than the control group, and with the exposure dose increasing, the level has decreased. The expression of IκB-α protein in lung tissue of rats exposed to the 1.5 mg/kg PM2.5 has increased than in control group. Conclusion: Atmospheric PM2.5 exposure can damage rats’ airway, affect the level of serum inflammatory factor TNF-α, and the protein expression level of IκB-α. With all considered, the NF-κB signaling pathway may play a role in regulating airway inflammation induced by atmospheric PM2.5.
  1,133 145 -
Co-building public health capacity: Considering spatial and temporal dynamics of public health challenges
Fujie Xu
October 2018, 11(13):26-26
The major causes of death are not infectious diseases any more, but chronic, noninfectious causes of death are prevalent and increasing not only in affluent countries, but also in lower-income and middle-income countries. RAND corporation scanned the challenges for public health over the next 20 years and summarized that although integration of data will play a significant role, there is no single technology or capability that dominates the field. In the coming decade, advanced therapies, such as genome editing techniques, are expected to deliver cures for a variety of inherited genetic diseases. However, in this era of unprecedented optimism and increasing efforts toward making advanced therapies standard treatment in developed countries, it is also a common reality for those living in lower-income and middle-income countries that the path from vaccine licensure to vaccination has been long and uncertain. For example, pneumococcal vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in preventing lower respiratory diseases, but the potential of the vaccine has not been fully realized due to lack of widespread use. Through China’s efforts of co-building public health capacity in the coming decades with its partners around developing and developed countries, these spatial and temporal dynamics of public health challenges of infectious, noninfectious, and genetic diseases require an arduous balancing act in setting priorities. Particularly, we public health practitioners should remind ourselves that the greatest global health achievements in the previous century are all population-level interventions. The general public and policy makers should be reminded that the global public health capacity must be adequate to sustain global health achievements and prepare well for future challenges.
  1,111 165 -
Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on thyroid in pubertal female rats and related mechanism
Pu Shao, Te Liu, Meng Zhang, Na Li
October 2018, 11(13):45-45
Objective: The quality of the tropical environment is directly related to the sustainable development of the economy, society and the health of people in the tropics. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer, and it is easier to precipitate in the tropics. Epidemiological studies revealed that DEHP are widely exposure in the population, and it displays the characters of endocrine disruptor. In this study, we investigated the association between DEHP exposure in pubertal female rats and the thyroid function, and elucidated the toxicity of DEHP on endocrine system. Methods: Female rats (21 days old) were randomly apportioned into four dose groups (n=12), and administered via oral gavage at 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP for up to 4 weeks. After anesthetized, blood was collected from the eyeballs and the serum was separated. And the concentration of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels were measured by using ELISA. The thyroids of pubertal female rats were rapidly collected after decapitation, and the related gene and protein levels were analyzed by Real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: DEHP could be able to increase TSH, TT3, TT4, FT4 and TPO levels, but there were no changes in FT3. Meanwhile, the gene and protein expressions of TSH, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), paired box 8 (PAX8), and TPO in thyroid of pubertal female rats which treated with DEHP were significantly increased compared with the control group. Conclusions: These results were suggesting that DEHP may have thyroid toxicity on pubertal female rats. At the same time, it could also disturb thyroid function through affecting TSH, TTF1, PAX8, TPO. DEHP might affect the growth and development of puberty female rats through disrupting the endocrine regulation of the thyroid.
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Mountain regions of Central Asia as factors of possible occurring tropical diseases
Asylbek Aidaraliev
October 2018, 11(13):25-25
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea to the west of China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north, where the enormous mountain region is allocated with a large population of mountain inhabitants. Meanwhile, over the past decades the number of emergency situations in Central Asia has greatly increased due to globally rising temperature. These factors have a direct impact on human health and accordingly, on the health system as a whole. In addition to this, climate change can cause an increase in the incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular system, infectious diseases, transmitted through water intestinal infections, including malaria, as well as diseases carried by ticks. Wellbeing of mountain populations, in comparison with flat territories, demands essentially big biological and physical power expenses. Climate warming promotes to the development of many infectious and parasitic diseases. According to the World Bank’s report “Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia”, the impacts of increase of temperature can bring to profound consequences for public health. Examples of the most direct and obvious threats to the health of mountain population are infectious diseases spread through contaminated water, and vector-borne diseases such as tick-borne encephalitis, dengue fever, malaria and etc. We believe that it is necessary to include the project “Development of Prevention Measures on Tropical Diseases in Mountain Regions of Central Asia” into the World Bank’s Program “Adaptation of Europe and Central Asia to Climate Change”. In the present papers, details on factors which might lead to possible occurring of tropical diseases in Central Asian regions, and prevention measures have been discussed.
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Infection of Borna disease virus in healthy animals in northern China
Ai-xia Zhai, Ai-mei Li, Wu-qi Song, Wen-ping Kao, Jun Qian, Yu-jun Li, Qing-meng Zhang, Le-le Cui, Tong Bu, Han-xu Zhang, Feng-min Zhang
October 2018, 11(13):30-30
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-segmented, single negative stranded RNA virus. It is highly neurotropic, but the infection is not cytopathic to the infected cells. BDV is widely infected in vertebrates, causing abnormal behavior and multiple pathological changes. Horses and sheep are the main natural hosts of BDV. Borna disease (BD) is characterized by progressive mononuclear encephalomyelitis. The BD clinical manifestations include ataxia, depression, rotation movement, mandatory standing, hitting objects with body and paralysis, and they usually last for 1-3 weeks. BDV infection causes a significant health problem in animals and economic loss for the society. However, BDV natural infection frequency in the raised animals in northern China, is poorly understood, but is required for understanding BDV infection epidemiology. BDV infection can be diagnosed through detecting viral proteins, antibodies and nucleic acid. The fluorescence based quantitative PCR is commonly used for BDV diagnosis because of the superior sensitivity. The assays for detecting plasma BDV specific antibodies include immunofluorescence, Western Blot and ELISA. Western Blot offers comparatively high specificity, which can detect different antibodies on the same blot/strip, and is often used as the confirmatory assay. This study investigated the infection prevalence of BDV in the meadow that raised horses and sheep in northern China. Blood samples were collected from a herd of healthy horses and sheep that were meadow raised in Hailin City, Heilongjiang Province, China. The uncoagulated blood samples were used to isolate peripheral lymphocytes and plasma. We selected Mongolian horses which are stocky, with relatively short but strong legs and a large head. The selected Han sheep is relatively small, has short tail and weighs 35-45 kg on average. BDV p40 mRNA was detected by Taqman based quantitative RT-PCR in lymphocytes of horses and sheep. BDV His-phosphoprotein (P) and His-nucleoprotein (N) fusion proteins were isolated with Histidine coated beads and the purity and immunological activity of the isolated viral proteins were assessed and verified by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot. Plasma BDV antibodies in horses and sheep were detected using the purified fusion proteins as antigens. Quantitative PCR assay showed that 50.00% (16/32) of the tested horse samples were positive for BDV p40 mRNA, and 20.83% (5/24) positive for BDV p40 mRNA in the sheep samples. The purified BDV His-P fusion protein in SDS-PAGE electrophoresis migrated at expected 24 kD size. A known specific BDV P antibody verified the immunogenicity of the purified BDV P in Western Blot, and BDV persistently infected human oligodendrocytes as positive control. The purified BDV His-N fusion protein appeared at the expected 40 kD position and the immunogenicity was also verified. The positive rates of BDV P antibody and N antibody were 11.11% (4/36) and 5.56% (2/36) in the tested horses, respectively. The positive rates of BDV P antibody and N antibody were 13.16% (5/38) and 7.89% (3/38) in the tested sheep, respectively. In conclusion, we utilized the expressed BDV His-P and His-N fusion proteins as antigen and established a modified Western Blot assay for detecting plasma BDV antibodies. Our data showed the direct evidence that natural BDV infection occurred in the meadow raised healthy horses and sheep in northern China.
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A retrospective study of diabetes in middle-aged and elderly urban population in Hainan, south China
Yu-fei Zhai, Fan Zhang, Chan-juan Zhao, Xi-wen Liu, Meng-qin Liao, Xuan Chen, Ying Liu, Jie Li, Song Yang
October 2018, 11(13):35-35
Objective: To investigate the distribution characteristics and epidemic trends of diabetes in middle-aged and elderly urban Hainanese, and to explore the correlations between diabetes and hypertension or hyperlipidemia in this kind of people. Methods: Middle-aged and elderly urban Hainanese (35–74 years old) were examined at the Medical Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University from 2013 to 2017. According to the World Health Organiza-tion (WHO) Diabetes Diagnostic Criteria 1999, subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) level ⩾7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) were diagnosed as diabetes. The retrospective analysis of the collected cleared data was conducted by using chi-square test, single factor correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis methods [gender: X1 (male=1, female=2); age: X2 (35–44=1, 45–54=2, 55–64=3, 65–74=4). The test level was set as 0.05. All data were standardized by age according to the 6th National Census Data 2010. Results: A total of 69 077 middle-aged and elderly observations’ data in 2013–2017 were collected. The detection rates of diabetes were 8.28%, 8.89%, 10.71%, 8.29%, and 9.21% respectively by year (χ2=41.850, P < 0.001), among which the detection rate of diabetes was the highest in 2015. The detection rates of diabetes showed significant differences among age groups (2.90% for age 35–44, 8.34% for age 45–54, 15.48% for age 55–64, 18.98% for age 65–74, χ2=602.63, P< 0.001) and gender (8.4% for male vs. 4.1% for female, χ2=287.41, P < 0.001). FBG level was linearly related to gender (B=0.127, P < 0.001, 95% CI 0.51–0.58) and age (B=-0.105, P < 0.001, 95% CI: -0.51– -0.37). According to standard coefficient, age had a larger impact on FBG level (Bage*=0.177, Bgender*=-0.760). Rank correlation analysis showed there were weak correlations either between diabetes and hypertension (correlation coefficient r=0.161, P< 0.001) or hyperlipidemia (correlation coefficient r=0.106, P< 0.001). Conclusions: The detection rate of diabetes in middle-aged and elderly urban Hainanese increased in the past five years and it was linearly related with gender and age; weak correlations between diabetes and hypertension or hyperlipidemia were observed. Further prospective studies should be done in the future.
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Polymorphisms in XPB and XPG subcomplexes of TFIIH is associated with lung cancer risk in a Chinese population: A case-control study
Sha Xiao, Wen-fang Long, Yi-jiang Huang, Shi-cheng Kuang, Chong Meng, Yun-ru Liu, Yu-mei Liu, Zhen Yan, De-e Yu, Fan Zhang
October 2018, 11(13):37-37
Objective: The transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) helicases XPB and XPD are responsible for opening the DNA strand around the lesion site and endonuclease XPG cleaves the damaged DNA strand on the 3’ side during nucleotide excision repair (NER). Polymorphisms in these three genes that affect DNA repair capacity may contribute to susceptibility of lung cancer. In this study, our objective is to conduct a case-control study of 100 Chinese patients with lung cancer and 100 cancer-free age and sex matched controls to analyse associations between these SNPs and lung cancer susceptibility. Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, we genotyped 7 SNPs of XPB, XPD and XPG using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry method (MALDI-TOF) to explore the association with lung cancer risk. To estimate the relative risk of lung cancer associated with SNP genotype, odds ratios (OR) and 95.0% confidence intervals (95.0% CI) were obtained from unconditional multinomial logistic regression models without and with adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Results: The results showed that individuals carrying XPB rs4150434 GA or AA genotype (OR per GA genotype, 1.997; 95.0% CI: 1.031-3.871; P=0.039; OR per AA genotype, 2.435; 95.0% CI: 1.037-5.718; P=0.037), and this association was also find in nondrinkers (OR per GA genotype, 2.477; 95.0% CI: 1.128-5.440; P=0.022). Individuals carrying XPG rs2094258 AA genotype had an increased risk of lung cancer (OR per AA genotype, 3.020; 95.0% CI: 1.015-8.980; P=0.040) compared with individuals with the GG genotype, especially in nondrinkers (OR per AA genotype, 4.020; 95.0% CI: 1.211-13.339; P=0.017). In addition, we found that XPG rs17655 CG or GG genotype associated with decreased lung cancer risk in drinkers (OR per XPG rs17655 CG genotype, 0.238; 95.0% CI: 0.061~0.925; P=0.034; OR per XPG rs17655 GG genotype, 0.l39; 95.0% CI: 0.021-0.938; P=0.032). Haplotype analysis of all 7 SNPs was also conducted. We found that the haplotype of XPB (rs4150441, G>A; rs4150434, G>A) GA and the haplotype of XPG (rs2094258, G>A; rs4771436, T>G; rs17655, C>G) ATC had an increased association with lung cancer. Conclusions: These findings suggest an important role of XPB rs4150434 and XPG rs17655 polymorphisms for a biomarker for lung cancer risk among the Chinese population.
  1,096 110 -
Complete genome sequence of a rodent torque teno virus in Hainan Island, China
Yue Wu, Shan-shan Wang, Yun-chun Chen, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Li-hua Li, Wen-qi Wang, Huan-huan Zhou, You Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xiu-ji Cui, Gang Lu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Fei-fei Yin
October 2018, 11(13):29-29
Objective: Torque teno virus(TTV), are reported in a wide range of mammals. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of a genetic variant of Rodent TTV, RoTTV3-HMU1 (Hainan Medical University). The virus was harbored by a Rattus norvegicus in the residential areas of Hainan Island, China. Methods: Torque Teno virus (TTV) was found widely distributed throughout the world infecting an extensively wide range of mammals .We extracted the viral DNA from a Rattus norvegicus liver which was caught from the residential areas of Hainan Island. Purifying the amplicons in the range of 250-500 bp. Then Five hundred nanograms DNA was subjected to high-throughput sequencing. The contigs were compared with the NCBI nucleiotide database, designed the primers to cover the genome by PCR amplification and amplicons of each PCR which have been cloned and sequenced. Finally the genome was annotated by using NCBI ORF finder and FGENESV0. Phylogenetic analysis was implemented by the neighbor-joining method in the MEGA6 software package. Results: We sequenced the complete genome of a genetic variant of Rodent TTV, RoTTV3- HMU1. The genomic sequence of RoTTV3-HMU1 has been deposited in GenBank under accession number MF688246.1. The complete genome of RoTTV3-HMU1 is 2 570 nucleotides (nt) in length with a G+C content of 46.93%. RoTTV3-HMU1 encoded 3 unidirectional overlapping open reading frames (ORF). Sequence analysis indicated that the genome of RoTTV3-HMU1 virus was most closely related to RN_2_15 (GenBank accession no. KM668486.1). Phylogenetic analysis based on both ORF1 and the total genome sequence placed RoTTV3-HMU1 in to the clad RoTTV3 of the RoTTV. Conclusions: Hainan Island faces mainland across the sea, however, the same genotype of RoTTV was identified in both Hainan Island and the other part of China. The detection of RoTTV3-HMU1 contributed to a better understanding about the origin and evolution of RoTTV.
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