Impact Factor 2020: 1.226 (@Clarivate Analytics)
5-Year Impact Factor: 2.285 (@Clarivate Analytics)
Immediacy Index: 2.645
  • Users Online: 637
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 
Table of Contents
META-ANALYSIS
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 99-112

Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in animals in Iran: A systematic review and metaanalysis


1 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
2 Divisions of Epidemiology, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
4 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission24-Nov-2020
Date of Decision14-Jan-2021
Date of Acceptance15-Jan-2021
Date of Web Publication02-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Saied Bokaie
Divisions of Epidemiology, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.307532

Get Permissions

  Abstract 

Objective: To review the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among animal population of Iran.
Methods: Data were systematically gathered from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2020 in the Islamic Republic of Iran from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Springer, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID). According to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and inclusion criteria, 88 eligible studies were obtained.
Results: The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random and fixed effects model according to heterogeneity among animals was as follows: rodents 18.8% (95% CI 12.6%-25.0%), camels 17.1% (95% CI 8.6%-25.7%), cattle 16.8% (95% CI 13.4%-20.1%), goats 14.1% (95% CI 5.2%-23.0%), horses 12.2% (95% CI 8.3%- 16.2%), birds 10.5% (95% CI 7.6%-13.4%), sheep 9.9% (95% CI 2.4%-4.9%), cats 8.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.8%) and dogs 3.7% (95% CI 7.0%-12.8%).
Conclusions: Cryptosporidiosis has been reported and present in a wide range of animals in Iran over the years and has a high prevalence in most of these species.

Keywords: Cryptosporidiosis; Animals; Prevalence; Iran


How to cite this article:
Jokar M, Rabiee MH, Bokaie S, Rahmanian V, Dehesh P, Hasannejad H, Hushmandi K, Keshipour H. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in animals in Iran: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2021;14:99-112

How to cite this URL:
Jokar M, Rabiee MH, Bokaie S, Rahmanian V, Dehesh P, Hasannejad H, Hushmandi K, Keshipour H. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in animals in Iran: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Asian Pac J Trop Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 26];14:99-112. Available from: https://www.apjtm.org/text.asp?2021/14/3/99/307532


  1. Introduction Top


Cryptosporidium is one of the zoonotic parasites. It is a genus in the family Cryptosporiidae, suborder Eimeriorina, order Eucoccidiorida, subclass Coccidiasina, class Sporozoasida and phylum Apocomplexa[1]. The protozoan, for first time identified by Tyzzer (1907) in mice and so far nearly 40 valid species and more than 50 genotypes of it has been recognized. This parasite infects a wide range of vertebrates including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and aquatic animals and affects the epithelial cells of their gastrointestinal tract to causes a disease with a wide range of form, from asymptomatic to mild and severe gastrointestinal symptoms[2],[3].

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the major causes of diarrheal death in children less than five years old and young animals, especially neonatal of ruminants[4],[5]. Furthermore, this infection is life-threatening for immunosuppressed patient, notably HIV-infected people that recent systematic review has shown a high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in them[6],[7]. Various clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis are reported in mammals and birds such as diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy, lower pigmentation, apathy and depression, growth retardation and finally death[8],[9].

Cryptosporidiosis in companion animals is asymptomatic but infrequently with concurrent infections, different signs have been reported in horses, cats and dogs[9],[10]. The important economic losses in ruminants farms are caused by acute diarrhea[9],[11]. This infection frequently occurs in reptiles but may be life-threatening for them[12].

Several concerns exist in the global control of cryptosporidiosis: firstly, different transmission routes such as person-to-person, human-animal, foodborne and waterborne transmission; secondly, inefficiency of water disinfectants against Cryptosporidium oocyte; thirdly, the absence of a vaccine and effective treatment[13],[14].

The epidemiological aspects of cryptosporidiosis among animals’ populations can be useful for setting control plans. To the best of our knowledge, till now, there is no available knowledge about the pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in animals’ populations of Iran. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the overall prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in animals in Iran.


  2. Materials and methods Top


This study was designed as suggested via the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA)[15].

2.1. Bibliographic search strategy

The relevant studies have been identified from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2020 from six English sources i.e. PubMed, Springer, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science and two Persian databases namely Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID). The search was implemented using the MeSH terms as follows: “Cryptosporidium” or “cryptosporidiosis” or “intestinal parasite” and “Iran” in combination and in both Persian (Farsi) and English. In addition, the datasets option of “related articles” and the reference of the studies was checked to prevent missing data. The selection process of studies is in view in the PRISMA flowchart as shown in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: PRISMA flowchart presenting the selection of articles analyzed in this systematic review and meta-analysis.

Click here to view


2.2. Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The title and abstract of studies related to animal cryptosporidiosis in Iran were screened. After eliminating duplicates, the full text of papers was reviewed by two reviewers independently for assessing the quality of the articles. Differences of opinion between the specialists were resolved by a third person independently and consensus.

Inclusion criteria for our study were: (1) studies conducted on animal's population of Iran; (2) studies that reported prevalence of cryptosporidiosis; (3) studies which diagnosed cryptosporidiosis based on microscopic method.

Exclusion criteria included the following: (1) any studies whose type was non-cross-sectional (experimentally, case report and etc.); (2) studies not performed on Iran; (3) studies not performed on animal populations; (4) studies not reported prevalence of cryptosporidiosis; (5) studies not detected Cryptosporidium based on microscopic methods; (6) studies in which the method of detecting Cryptosporidium was ambiguous.

2.3. Data collection

An Excel data extraction form was used to collect the following data from eligible studies: first author, time of publication, time of study, place of study, animal species, diagnostic tests, sample size, total Cryptosporidium-positive number, prevalence, age group, gender, type of habitat or farming system, absence or presence of diarrheal sign and season [Table 1].
Table 1: Studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis.

Click here to view


2.4. Statistical analysis

The pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random and fixed-effects models. The heterogeneity was expected in advance, and statistical methods, Cochran's Q test and I2 index were used to assess the heterogeneity among the studies[16]. if I2 index > 50% and Cochran's Q test P-value < 0.1, we would choose the random effect model for estimation[17]. Proportions of individual studies, overall prevalence and the heterogeneity among studies were presented by forest plots.

The publication bias of studies was assessed by Egger's test[18]. To visualize the cattle and dogs cryptosporidiosis in Iran, we used the Arc GIS 10.3 software (https://www.arcgis.com) to map the distribution of prevalence in different provinces. The meta-analysis was performed with the trial version of StatDirect statistical software available from public domain i.e. http://statdirects.com.


  3. Results Top


3.1. Search results and eligibility studies

In this study, totally 1 586 articles were found by searching the entire databases; by systematic review and meta-analysis by considering the inclusion criteria. Among them, 548 articles were removed due to duplication and 854 articles were removed due to non-compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria in caption and abstract. Also, 96 articles were removed due to non-compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria in full text. Eventually 88 studies have met the evaluation criteria of this study [Figure 1].

3.2. Characteristics of the eligible studies

Among the 88 eligible studies, 22 were published before 2010 and others published after 2010. Among the studies, 78 studies determined prevalence only in one species of animal, while 10 studies determined the prevalence in more than one species. In the other words, studies determined prevalence are as follows: 30 among cattle, 19 among dogs, 16 among birds 10 among rodent, 7 among sheep, 6 among camels, 5 among horses, 3 among cat, 3 among goats, 2 among buffalos, 1 among fish and 1 among mules. Also, 86 studies reported prevalence only in one province while 2 studies reported prevalence in more than one province [Table 1].

3.3. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis

3.3.1. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in cattle

A total number of 8 684 cattle were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 1 316 cases were detected positive using microscopic method presented [Table 2]. Overall, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random-effects meta-analysis among cattle was estimated at 16.8% (95% CI 13.4%-20.1%) [Table 2] and [Figure 2]. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=958.45 (df=29), P<0.01, and I2=97.0% [Table 2]. The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in cattle was higher in summer, diarrheal patients, bulls and cattle less than 1 year old but none of them had a significant difference [Table 3]. In addition, a schematic map of cryptosporidiosis distribution in cattle was made based on studies conducted in the provinces of Iran [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Forest plots of prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among cattle (A), dogs (C), and cats (E) in Iran (first author, year) with funnel plot for visualization of publication bias in studies of cattle (B), dogs (D) and cats (F).

Click here to view
Figure 3: Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among cattle (A) and dogs (B) in different provinces of Iran.

Click here to view
Table 2: Overall prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in different species.

Click here to view
Table 3: Demographic factors associated with positivity of Cryptosporidium in the Iranian animal population.

Click here to view


3.3.2. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dogs

A total number of 4 107 dogs were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 183 cases were detected positive using microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. Overall, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random-effects meta-analysis among dogs was estimated at 3.7% (95% CI 2.4%-4.9%) [Table 2] and [Figure 2]. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies was observed Q statistic=141.01 (df=19), P<0.01, and I2=86.5% [Table 2]. The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dogs was higher in fall, stray dogs, female and dog's upper than 1 year old but none of them had a significant difference [Table 3]. In addition, a schematic map of cryptosporidiosis distribution in dogs was made based on studies conducted in the provinces of Iran [Figure 3].

3.3.3. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in cats

A total number of 187 cats were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 19 cases were detected positive using microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. The results show that there are 3 studies estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in 187 stray cats and the pooled prevalence was 8.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.8%) using the fixed-effect model [Table 2] and [Figure 2]. There was an intermediate degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=3.39 (df=2), P=0.184, and I2=41.0% [Table 2].

3.3.4. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in sheep

A total number of 3 901 sheep were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 395 cases were detected positive using microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. Overall, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random-effects meta-analysis among sheep was estimated at 9.9% (95% CI 7.0%-12.8%) [Table 2] and [Figure 4]. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=114.90 (df=11), P<0.01, and I2=90.4% [Table 2]. The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in sheep was higher in male and sheep under 1 year old but none of them had a significant difference [Table 3].
Figure 4: Forest plots of prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among sheep (A), goats (C), and birds (E) in Iran (first author, year) with funnel plot for visualization of publication bias in studies of sheep (B), goats (D) and birds (F).

Click here to view


3.3.5. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in goats

A total number of 1 030 goats were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 147 cases were detected positive using microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. The results show that there are 3 studies estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in goats and the pooled prevalence using the random effects model of 14.1% (95% CI 5.2%-23.0%) [Table 2] and [Figure 4]. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=37.87 (df=2), P<0.01, and I2=94.7% [Table 2].

3.3.6. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in birds

A total number of 3 352 birds were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 307 cases were detected positive using microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. Overall, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, using random- effects meta-analysis among birds was estimated at 10.5% (95% CI 7.6%-13.4%) [Table 2] and [Figure 4]. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=165.28 (df=15), P<0.01, and I2=90.9% [Table 2]. The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in birds was higher in commercial farming system but there was no significant difference [Table 3].

3.3.7. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in horses

A total number of 636 horses were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 85 cases were detected positive using Microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. Overall, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random-effects meta-analysis among horses was estimated at 12.2% (95% CI 8.3%-16.2%) [Table 2] and [Figure 5]. There was an intermediate degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=9.49 (df=4), P=0.05, and I2=57.9% [Table 2]. The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in horses was higher in female horses but there was no significant difference [Table 3].
Figure 5: Forest plots of prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among horses (A), rodents (C), and camels (E) in Iran (first author, year) with funnel plot for visualization of publication bias in studies of horses (B), rodents (D) and camels (F).

Click here to view


3.3.8. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in rodents

A total number of 976 rodents were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 133 cases were detected positive using microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. Overall, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random-effects meta-analysis among rodents was estimated at 18.8% (95% CI 12.6%-25.0%) [Table 2] and [Figure 5]. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=384.85 (df=9), P<0.01, and I2=97.7% [Table 2].

3.3.9. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in camel

A total number of 1 029 camels were examined for cryptosporidiosis in different geographical locations in Iran and 187 cases were detected positive using microscopic method as presented [Table 2]. Overall, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random-effects meta-analysis among camels was estimated at 17.1% (95% CI 8.6%-25.7%) [Table 2] and [Figure 5]. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates between different studies. It was observed Q statistic=87.27 (df=5), P<0.01, and I2=94.3% [Table 2]. The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in camels was higher in female and camels upper than 5 years old but none of them had a significant difference [Table 3].

3.3.10. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in other animals

Two studies reported the prevalence in buffalo was 45% and 2% respectively. One study reported the prevalence in mules was 12.5% and one study reported prevalence in fish was 17% [Table 2].

3.4. Publication bias

Egger tests were applied to check the presence of publication bias. The Egger's test in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, birds, and rodents, indicated a significant publication bias of studies [Table 2].


  4. Discussion Top


In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we reviewed the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among all animals’ species in Iran. To detect cryptosporidiosis, there are microscopic, serological, and molecular methods, each with its own characteristics. However, acid-fast staining of fecal smear for displaying the Cryptosporidium oocytes is one practical and rapid method[107],[108] and in low-income countries, this method is commonly used because of inexpensive, simple and having a high positive predictive value for Cryptosporidium[109],[110]. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was estimated among the studies that had reported the prevalence of this infection in Iran using microscopic methods.

In this study, we indicated that the pooled prevalence among animal of Iran was between 3.7% to 18.8% and the pooled prevalence respectively was high to low as follows: rodent, camel, cattle, goats, horse, birds, sheep, cat and dog. Notably we prioritized it regardless of study of buffalo, fish and mule which had less than two studies. This different prevalence among animal can be due to different susceptibility of animals to the Cryptosporidium and also different raising and living areas. Anyway, In general, this result shows that the disease has been reported in a wide range of animals in Iran for many years and it is necessary to pay more attention to it among animals because of its economic and public health importance.

As we showed, rodents have the highest pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis compared to other animals of Iran. Indeed, the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in rodents using the microscopic detection method was estimated at 18.8% in the present study. A global meta-analysis estimated the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using the microscopic method was 14% in rodents[111]. The infection of different rodent species by Cryptosporidium spp. has been reported in different parts of the world, as well as the transmission of this pathogen by rodents to humans has been proven[111],[112]. Besides, in recent decades, the rapid development of industry and agriculture, climate change has increased the probability of humans-rodents contact[113]. Therefore, considering that the estimated pooled prevalence of rodent's cryptosporidiosis was high in Iran and given presence of various species of rodent in different parts of the country, it is essential to control rodent's population and accessibility of them to water and food supply for reaching one health condition.

In addition to rodents, this study indicated that prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among other mentioned animals was remarkable. For instance, the prevalence among camels, cattle, goats, horses, birds and sheep was as follows: 17.1%, 16.8%, 14.1%, 12.2%, 10.5% and 9.9%. Although cryptosporidiosis is important in all of these animals, it is more important in cattle, and most studies published on animal cryptosporidiosis in different countries have been conducted on bovine cryptosporidiosis. So far, different meta-analyses have determined pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among cattle in different regions. For instance, a meta-analysis study in China estimated the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in cattle till 2019, regardless of the type of detection method, was 17%, and with the microscopic method being 16.5%[114]. Also, other meta-analyses conducted in Nigeria and Colombia estimated the pooled prevalence of this infection in cattle, regardless of the diagnostic method, was 26.1% and 21%, respectively[115],[116]. Although the disease rarely causes death in cattle and calves, it can cause great economic losses to the industry due to diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss[117]. Furthermore, the bovine population is one of the most important animal reservoirs in disease transmission to humans by shedding oocytes and consequently contaminating of water and food supply[118]. Therefore, given high pooled prevalence among cattle in Iran, it is important to control of the disease in cattle population to prevent Cryptosporidium transmission to other hosts and especially human and also to reduce the economic losses due to its occurrence.

The lowest pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among animals of Iran was in cats and dogs population with 8.8% and 3.7% respectively. A global meta-analysis in the dog's population estimated the pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis (using the microscopic method) was 8% and the range of pooled prevalence was from 0% to 13% in different parts of the world[119]. Furthermore, the meta-analysis study in Colombia estimated the pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs and cats was 17.4% and 13%, respectively[116]. The much lower prevalence of this disease in dogs in this study, as well as to some extent in similar studies, could be due to the fact that the majority of dogs studied are domestic dogs and because of the greater attention of their owners, the possibility of infection in them is less. However, various studies have proven the role of dogs and cats in transmitting the disease to humans. Besides, dogs and cats are known as the most important human friends and keeping dogs and cats at home has increased in the last decade in Iran[120]. Accordingly, observing hygienic practices for veterinarians and providing instruction for animal lovers before preparing dogs and cats can help control this infectious zoonotic aspect.

The strengths of this study include the large total sample size, the comprehensive literature search in eight international and Iranian databases, and vast population study (all animal species). However, this study has some limitations and the results presented here should be interpreted with regard to these limitations. Limitations include some reports with low sample size, high heterogeneity, and the possibility that our search strategy missed some studies.

In conclusion, the results of this systematic review and meta-analysis showed that cryptosporidiosis has been reported and present in a wide range of animals in Iran over the years and has a high prevalence in most of these species. Given that this disease causes economic and health damage, there is a need for health officials, veterinarians and livestock owners to try to improve the breeding environment and life of animals to prevent disease in them, not only to protect animal health and prevent economic losses in the case of farmed animals, but also to protect human health.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Authors’ contributions

M.H.R, S.B and V.R participated in study design. M.J, P.D, H.H, K.H and H.K did literature mining and data acquisition. M.J and M.H.R drafted the manuscript. Review and editing of the manuscript were done by M.H.R, M.J, S.B and V.R. All authors approved the final draft for publication.

 
  References Top

1.
Nader JL, Mathers TC, Ward BJ, Pachebat JA, Swain MT, Robinson G, et al. Evolutionary genomics of anthroponosis in Cryptosporidium. Nat Microbiol 2019; 4(5): 826-836.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Tzipori S, Widmer G. A hundred-year retrospective on cryptosporidiosis. Trends Parasitol 2008; 24(4): 184-189.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ryan U, Fayer R, Xiao L. Cryptosporidium species in humans and animals: Current understanding and research needs. Parasitology 2014; 141(13): 1667-1685.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Khalil IA, Troeger C, Rao PC, Blacker BF, Brown A, Brewer TG, et al. Morbidity, mortality, and long-term consequences associated with diarrhoea from Cryptosporidium infection in children younger than 5 years: A meta-analyses study. Lancet Glob Heal 2018; 6(7): e758-e768.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Thomson S, Hamilton CA, Hope JC, Katzer F, Mabbott NA, Morrison LJ, et al. Bovine cryptosporidiosis: Impact, host-parasite interaction and control strategies. Vet Res 2017; 48(1): 42.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Marcos LA, Gotuzzo E. Intestinal protozoan infections in the immunocompromised host. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013; 26(4): 295-301.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Wang ZD, Liu Q, Liu HH, Li S, Zhang L, Zhao YK, et al. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and Isospora infection in HIV-infected people: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasit Vectors 2018; 11(1): 28.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Alvarez-Pellitero P, Sitjà-Bobadilla A. Cryptosporidium molnari n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) infecting two marine fish species, Sparus aurata L. and Dicentrarchus labrax L. Int J Parasitol 2002; 32(8): 1007-1021.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Santín M. Clinical and subclinical infections with Cryptosporidium in animals. N Z Vet J 2013; 61(1): 1-10.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Thompson RCA, Olson ME, Zhu G, Enomoto S, Abrahamsen MS, Hijjawi NS. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis. Adv Parasitol 2005; 59: 77-158. doi: 10.1016/S0065-308X(05)59002-X.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
De Graaf DC, Vanopdenbosch E, Ortega-Mora LM, Abbassi H, Peeters JE. A review of the importance of cryptosporidiosis in farm animals. Int J Parasitol 1999; 29(8): 1269-1287.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Deming C, Greiner E, Uhl EW. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection and characteristics of oocyst shedding in a breeding colony of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). J Zoo Wildl Med 2008; 39(4): 600-607.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Meinhardt PL, Casemore DP, Miller KB. Epidemiologic aspects of human cryptosporidiosis and the role of waterborne transmission. Epidemiol Rev 1996; 18(2): 118-136.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Ryan U, Zahedi A, Paparini A. Cryptosporidium in humans and animals-a one health approach to prophylaxis. Parasite Immunol 2016; 38(9): 535-547.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med 2009; 6(7): e1000100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Br Med J 2003; 327(7414): 557-560.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials revisited. Contemp Clin Trials 2015; 45: 139-145.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. Br Med J 1997; 315(7109): 629-634.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Khanzadeh-Karvigh A, Yakhchali M, Hadian M. A comparative study on Cryptosporidium infection in household and stray dogs in Urmia and Tabriz municipalities, Iran. Vet Res Biol Prod 2017; 30(4): 100-106.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Larki S, Alborzi A, Chegini R, Amiri R. A preliminary survey on gastrointestinal parasites of domestic ducks in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran. Iran J Parasitol 2018; 13(1): 137-144.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Lotfollahzadeh S, Ziaei Daroonkolai N, Zahraei Salehi T, Poorbakhsh SA, Mokhber Dezfouli MR, Afshari GR. A study on the presence of Escherichia coli, coccidia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in faecal samples of neonatal diarrhoeic calves in Ghaemshahr and Babol and antibiotic sensitivity of isolates. J Fac Vet Med Univ Tehran 2004; 59(2): Ar131-Ar136.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Radfar MH, Fathi S, Asl EN, Dehaghi MM, Seghinsara HR. A survey of parasites of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in South Khorasan, Iran. Vet Res 2011; 4(1): 18-23.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Azizi HR, Pourjafar M, Dabaghzadeh B, Rajabi H. A survey of prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in less than 1 year old calves in Shahrekord dairy farms. Iran Vet J 2008; 4(17): 96-99.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Tavasouli M, Sodagar SM, Soltan AF. A survey on cryptosporidial infection in horse in Urmia area, Northwestern Iran. Iran J Vet Res 2007; 8(118): 86-90.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Keyvanloo Shahrestanakey R, Taghavi Razavizadeh A, Razmi GH. A survey on Cryptosporidium spp. infection in lambs with and without clinical signs of diarrhea in Jovein area. Vet Clin Pathol (Vet J Tabriz) 2017; 11(3): 233-241.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Ghadrdan Mashhadi A, Hamidienjat H, Alizadehnia P. A survey on frequency of equine cryptosporidiosis in Ahvaz. Vet Clin Pathol (Vet J Tabriz) 2013; 6(4): 1723-1727.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Borji H, Khoshnegah J, Razmi G, Amini H, Shariatzadeh M. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran. J Parasit Dis 2014; 38(3): 265-268.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Pirestani M, Sadraei J, Dalimi Asl AH. A survey on prevalence rate of cryptosporidial infection of farms in Shahriar county of Tehran and its hygienic importance in human. Vet J 2010; 22(4): 44-53.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Maleki SH, Nayebzadeh H. A survey on prevalence rate of cryptosporidiosis among diarrheic and healty cattle and calves in Khoram-abad, Iran. J Vet Res 2008; 62(6): 423-426.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Mohaghegh MA, Vafaei MR, Ghomashlooyan M, Azami M, Falahati M, Azadi Y, et al. A wide diversity of zoonotic intestinal parasites in domestic and stray dogs in rural areas of Kermanshah province, Iran. Trop Biomed 2018; 35(1): 82-90.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Mosallanejad B, Hamidinejat H, Avizeh R, Ghorbanpoor Najafabadi M, Razi Jalali MH. Antigenic detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in urban and rural dogs in Ahvaz district, southwestern Iran. Iran J Vet Res 2010; 11(3): 273-278.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Radfar MH, Gowhari MA, Khalili M. Comparison of capture ELISA and modified Ziehl-Neelsen for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in feces of camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. Sci Parasitol 2013; 14(3): 147-152.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Mirzaei M, Fooladi M. Coproscopy survey of gastrointestinal parasites in owned dogs of Kerman city, Iran. Vet Ital 2013; 49(3): 309-313.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Ranjbar-Bahadori Sh, Sangsefidi H, Shemshadi B, Kashefinejad M. Cryptosporidiosis and its potential risk factors in children and calves in Babol, North of Iran. Trop Biomed 2011; 28(1): 125-131.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Fasihi Harandi M, Fotouhi Ardakani R. Cryptosporidium infection of sheepand goats in Kerman: Epidemiologyand risk factor analysis. J Vet Res 2008; 63(1): 47-51.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Mirzai Y, Yakhchali M, Mardani K. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni infection in naturally infected cattle of northwest Iran. Vet Res Forum 2014; 5(1): 55-60.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Heidarnegadi SM, Mohebali M, Maraghi S, Babaei Z, Farnia S, Bairami A, et al. Cryptosporidium spp. infection in human and domestic animals. Iran J Parasitol 2012; 7(1): 53-58.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Mirzaghavami M, Sadraei J, Forouzandeh M. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in free ranging animals of Tehran, Iran. J Parasit Dis 2016; 40(4): 1528-1531.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Mirzaei M, Ramezanpour A. Diagnosis of Cryptosporidium infection in companion dogs in Kerman city. J Vet Lab Res 2009; 1(2): 95-103.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Pestechian N, Rasouli A, Yoosefi H. Distribution of intestinal worms among stray dogs in Isfahan, Iran. J Isfahan Med Sch 2012; 29(172): 2827-2012.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Nourmohammadzadeh F, Davoodi Y, Jamali R, Nowrouzian I. Epidemiologicalstudyon cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves in eastern Azarbaijan province. J Vet Res 2010; 65(3): 247-254.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Mirzaei M. Epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium spp. in companion and stray dogs in Kerman, Iran. Vet Ital 2012; 48(3): 291-296.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Bahrami A, Doosti A, Nahravanian H, Noorian AM, Asbchin SA. Epidemiological survey of gastro-intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2011; 5(9): 1944-1948.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Fotouhi Ardakani R, Fasihi Harandi M, Solayman Banai S, Kamyabi H, Atapour M, Sharifi I. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection of cattle in Kerman/Iran and molecular genotyping of some isolates. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2008; 15(4): 313-320.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Behzadi MA, Razavi SM, Yazdanpoor H, Mirzaei A, Tamadon A, Gandomani MJ. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Iran. Bulg J Vet Med 2009; 12(1): 55-61.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Rasuli S, Khodadadi A, Sadagiyani M, Moradpoor A, Salmanzadeh R. Equine Cryptosporidium prevalence in border line villages of Urmia province. J Vet Clin Res 2012; 3(1): 41-49.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Badparva E, Ezatpour B, Azami M, Badparva M. First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran. J Parasit Dis 2015; 39(4): 720-724.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Haghbin Nazarpak H, Mousavi SA, Ranjbar Bahadori SH, Mohammadi Malayeri MR, Hoseini SM. Frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in broiler breeding flock of Ghaemshahr. Vet Res (Garmsar Branch) 2011; 7(1): 1-5.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Tavassoli M, Iran U, Javadi S, Soltanalinejad F, Rosouli S, Etminanfar R. Gastrointestinal parasites of pet dogs in Urmia city. Vet J 2010; 23(2): 18-24.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Mohaghegh MA, Kalani H, Azami M, Falahati M, Heydarian P, Ghomashlooyan M. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in laboratory rats: A challenge for researchers. Comp Clin Path 2018; 27(5): 1237-1240.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Nematollahi A, Jaberi S, Helan JA, Sheikhzadeh N. Histopathological study on parasites in freshwater ornamental fishes in Iran. J Parasit Dis 2016; 40(3): 756-759.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Arzamani K, Rouhani S, Mousazadeh-Mojarrad A, Sedeghi S, Rostami M, Raeghi S. Identification of zoonotic parasites isolated from stray dogs in Bojnurd county located in North-East of Iran. Nov Biomed 2016; 4(4): 185-188.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Ranjbar-Bahadori Sh, Toni S. Infection to Cryptosporidium in diarrheic calves: A provincial study in southern Khorasan. J Vet Res 2013; 68(1): 13-19.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Hamedi H, Heydari M, Soleymani Ahmadi M. Intestinal and blood parasites of brown rats in Bandar Abbas. Hormozgan Med J 2003; 7(3): 123-127.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Gharagozlou MJ, Dezfoulian O, Rahbari S, Bokaie S, Jahanzad I, Razavi ANE. Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in Turkeys in Iran. J Vet Med Ser A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2006; 53(6): 282-285.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Dalimi A, Mojarad S, Jamshidi SH. Intestinal parasites of pet dogs in Tehran and evaluation of knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic risk of parasites of dog. J Vet Res 2002; 56(4): 13-16.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Mahami Oskouei M, Fallah E, Ahmadi M, Safaiyan A, Bakhtiyari S, Naserifar R, et al. Molecular and parasitological study of Cryptosporidium isolates from cattle in Ilam, west of Iran. Iran J Parasitol 2014; 9(3): 435-440.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Fallah E, Poor BM, Jamali R, Nahavandi KH, Asgharzadeh M. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from cattle in a slaughterhouse in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran. J Biol Sci 2008; 8(3): 639-643.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Saki J, Asadpouri R. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species isolated from cattle in southwest of Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2018; 11(5). doi: 10.5812/jjm.59371.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Saki J, Foroutan-Rad M, Asadpouri R. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rodents of southwestern Iran using 18s rRNA gene nested-PCR-RFLP and sequencing techniques. J Trop Med 2016; 2016: 6834206. doi: 10.1155/2016/6834206.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Hamidinejat H, Jalali MHR, Jafari RA, Nourmohammadi K. Molecular determination and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal and respiratory samples of industrial poultry in Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014; 7(7): 517-520.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Jalas M, Tavalla M. Molecular diagnosis and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in exotic birds of southwest of Iran. Trop Biomed 2018; 35(4): 944-950.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Dalimi A, Tahvildar f, Kazemi B. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium andersoni in Shahriar calves. Vet J (Pajouhesh Sazandegi) 2013; 28(2): 24-30.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Mohammadi Ghalehbin B, Arzanlou M, Fallah E, Kazemi AH, Asgharzadeh M. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium sp. in the cattle stool samples in Ardabil city, Northwestern Iran. J Anim Vet Adv 2008; 7(3): 246-250.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Ranjbar R, Mirhendi H, Izadi M, Behrouz B, Mohammadi Manesh R. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in Iranian dogs using seminested PCR: A first report. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018; 18(2): 96-100.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Tavalla M, Kord E, Abdizadeh R, Asgarian F. Molecular study of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs from southwest of Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2017; 10(4). doi: 10.5812/jjm.43412.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Mohebali M, Zarei Z, Khanaliha K, Kia EB, Motavalli-Haghi A, Davoodi J, et al. Natural intestinal protozoa in rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in northwestern Iran. Iran J Parasitol 2017; 12(3): 382-388.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Keshavarz A, Haghighi A, Athari A, Kazemi B, Abadi A, Mojarad EN. Prevalence and molecular characterization of bovine Cryptosporidium in Qazvin province, Iran. Vet Parasitol 2009; 160(3-4): 316-318.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Asadpour M, Razmi G, Mohhammadi G, Naghibi A. Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned dairy calves in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol 2013; 8(4): 601-607.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Ali H, Mohammad M, Saeid S. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in foals and humans to be in contact them in Tabriz Rea in Iran. Adv Environ Biol 2011; 5(6): 1070-1072.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Davoudi J, Shirazi SH, Mostofi S, Vahidi Madadlou S. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis spp in children, calf and rat in Tabriz city. Vet Res (Garmsar Branch) 2010; 6(1): 75-79.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Borji H, Razmi G, Movassaghi AR, Naghibi AG, Maleki M. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria infections in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in abattoir of Mashhad, Iran. J Camel Pract Res 2009; 16(2): 167-170.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Razavi SM, Oryan A, Bahrami S, Mohammadalipour A, Gowhari M. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in a slaughterhouse in Iran. Trop Biomed 2009; 26(3): 267-273.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
Gharekhani J, Heidari H, Youssefi M. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in sheep in Iran. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2014; 38(1): 22-25.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Nazifi S, Behzadi MA, Haddadi SH, Jahromi AR, Mehrshad S, Tamadon A. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Qeshm Island, Southern Iran. Comp Clin Path 2010; 19(3): 311-314.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
Ranjbar R, Fattahi R. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves under one year old in Ilam county (Iran), from March 2014 to February 2015. Electron Physician 2017; 9(6): 4631-4635.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Sazmand A, Rasooli A, Nouri M, Hamidinejat H, Hekmatimoghaddam S. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in camels and involved people in Yazd Province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol 2012; 7(1): 80-84.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.
Shafieyan H, Alborzi A, Hamidinejat H, Tabandeh MR, Hajikolaei MRH. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in ruminants of Lorestan province, Iran. J Parasit Dis 2016; 40(4): 1165-1169.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.
Bahrami S, Alborzi AR, Molayan PH, Purbaram S, Mousavi B. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection and its association with diarrhea in buffalo calves in Khuzestan, a southwestern province of Iran. Buffalo Bull 2014; 33(4): 293-299.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.
Safavi EA, Mohammadi GR, Naghibi A, Rad M. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in some dairy herds of Mashhad (Iran) and its association with diarrhea in newborn calves. Comp Clin Path 2011; 20(2): 103-107.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.
Radfar MH, Molaei MM, Baghbannejad A. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in dairy calves in Kerman, southeastern Iran. Iran J Vet Res 2006; 7(2): 81-84.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.
Yakhchali M, Moradi T. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like infection in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of northwestern Iran. Parasite 2012; 19(1): 71-75.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.
Yagoob G, Ataollah T, Muhammad F. Prevalence of dog intestinal parasites and zoonotic importance of them in Sarab city, Iran. Cibtech J Zool 2014; 3(3):78-86.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.
Tavassoli M, Dalir-Naghadeh B, Valipour S, Maghsoudlo M. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves raised with cattle in smallholder farming system in the Northwest of Iran. Acta Vet Eurasia 2018; 44(1): 6-11.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.
Norolahi Fard F, Asl N, Rezaei Seghinsara H. Prevalence of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in pigeons in Mashhad. Iran J Vet Clin Sci 2010; 4(1): 21.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.
Mirzaei M, Mohammadi V, Fotouhi Ardakani R. Prevalence of intestinal Cryptosporidium infection in Kerman pigeons (short paper). Sci Iran Vet J 2008; 4(2): 115-121.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.
Mirzaei M. Prevalence of stray dogs with intestinal protozoan parasites. Am J Anim Vet Sci 2010; 5(2): 79-83.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.
Beigi S, Nourollahi Fard SR, Akhtardanesh B. Prevalence of zoonotic and other intestinal protozoan parasites in stray cats (Felis domesticus) of Kerman, South-East of Iran. Istanbul Univ Vet Fak Derg 2017; 43(1): 23-27.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.
Beiromvand M, Akhlaghi L, Fattahi Massom SH, Meamar AR, Motevalian A, Oormazdi H, et al. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in domestic and stray dogs in a rural area of Iran. Prev Vet Med 2013; 109(1-2): 162-167.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.
Nouroozi RV. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in wild brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population at Shoushtar, Iran. Int Electron J Med 2016; 5(1): 18-22.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.
Jafari R, Maghsood AH, Fallah M. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection among livestock and humans in contact with livestock in Hamadan District, Iran, 2012. J Res Health Sci 2013; 13(1): 86-89.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.
Esmail F, Ataallah H. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts from calves in Kurdistan province, of Iran. Internet J Parasit Dis 2012; 4(2). doi: 10.5580/17a2.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.
Yagoob G, Bahman K. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites in stray dogs of Tabriz city, Iran. Indian J Fundam Appl Life Sci 2014; 4(2):20-24.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.
Ranjbar Bahadori S, Aliari M. Risk factors for cryptosporidial diarrhea in calves. J Vet Res 2012; 67(3): 205-209.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.
Shirazi SH, Hashemzadeh Farhang H, Mirsamadi N, Shahbazi P. Studying the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among human, calf and wild rat papulations in Tabriz. J Large Anim Clin Sci Res (J Vet Med) 2009; 3(6): 53-58.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.
Heidari H, Gharakhani J. Study of Cryptosporidium infection in the livestock (cattle, sheep, dogs, fowls) and humans, in Hamadan city and its suburbs during 2006-2011. Avicenna J Clin Med 2012; 19(3): 67-74.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.
Shemshadi B, Bahadori SR, Mozafari A. Study on cryptosporidiosis incidence in broilers in Garmsar region, Iran. Comp Clin Path 2011; 20(2): 143-149.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.
Gharekhani J. Study on gastrointestinal zoonotic parasites in pet dogs in Western Iran. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2014; 38(3): 172-176.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.
Ranjbar-Bahadori Sh, Azizzadeh M, Taghvaei M. Study on the infection rate to Cryptosporidium in suckling calves of Ghuchan district. Iran Vet J 2013; 9(3): 62-68.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.
Changizi E, Salimi-Bejestani MR, Javheri Vayeghan A. The Cryptosporidium ryanae infection commence in Iranian cattle. J Vet Res 2012; 67(2): 127-133.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.
Azami M, Moghaddam DD, Salehi R, Salehi M. The identification of Cryptosporidium species (protozoa) in Ifsahan, Iran by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Mol Biol (Mosk) 2007; 41(5): 934-939.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.
Khezri M, Khezri O. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs and goat kids in Kurdistan, Iran. Vet World 2013; 6(12): 974-977.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.
Afkhamnia MR, Nouri M, Karimi GR, Banani M, Ghadiri Abyaneh M. The report of cryptosporidiosis (Cryptisporidium infection) in commercial chicken farms of Tabriz area. Vet J 2011; 24(4): 1-5.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.
Baghban F, Moradimofrad MA. The survey of abundance of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in diarrhoeic calves in Yasuj city. J Large Anim Clin Sci Res (J Vet Med) 2009; 3(7): 17-22.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.
Hashemzadefarhang H, Shahbazi P, Bahavarnia SR. The survey on Cryptosporidium parasite infection in Tabriz and suburb native poultry. Sci J Manag Syst 2014; 8(3): 588-595.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.
Gholipoury M, Rezai HR, Namroodi S, Khazaeli FA. Zoonotic and non-zoonotic parasites of wild rodents in Turkman Sahra, northeastern Iran. Iran J Parasitol 2016; 11(3): 350.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.
Khurana S, Chaudhary P. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Trop Parasitol 2018; 8(1): 2-7.  Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.
Adeyemo FE, Singh G, Reddy P, Stenström TA. Methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia: From microscopy to nucleic acid based tools in clinical and environmental regimes. Acta Trop 2018; 184: 15-28.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.
Shaposhnik EG, Abozaid S, Grossman T, Marva E, On A, Azrad M, et al. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium among children hospitalized because of gastrointestinal symptoms and the efficiency of diagnostic methods for Cryptosporidium. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019; 101(1): 160-163.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.
Robinson G, Chalmers RM. Cryptosporidium diagnostic assays: Microscopy. Methods Mol Biol 2020; 2052: 1-10. doi: 10.1007/978-1- 4939-9748-0_1.  Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.
Taghipour A, Olfatifar M, Foroutan M, Bahadory S, Malih N, Norouzi M. Global prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in rodents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Vet Med 2020; 182: 105119. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105119.  Back to cited text no. 111
    
112.
García-Livia K, Martín-Alonso A, Foronda P. Diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rodents from the Canary Islands, Spain. Parasit Vectors 2020; 13(1): 1-9.  Back to cited text no. 112
    
113.
Rabiee MH, Mahmoudi A, Siahsarvie R, Kryštufek B, Mostafavi E. Rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in Iran. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(4): e0006256.  Back to cited text no. 113
    
114.
Cai Y, Zhang NZ, Gong QL, Zhao Q, Zhang XX. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in China during 2008-2018: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Microb Pathog 2019; 132: 193-200.  Back to cited text no. 114
    
115.
Odeniran PO, Ademola IO. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in different hosts in Nigeria: A meta-analysis. Parasitol Int 2019; 71: 194-206.  Back to cited text no. 115
    
116.
Galván-Díaz AL. Cryptosporidiosis in Colombia: A systematic review. Curr Trop Med Rep 2018; 5(3): 144-153.  Back to cited text no. 116
    
117.
Rashid M, Rashid MI, Akbar H, Ahmad L, Hassan MA, Ashraf K, et al. A systematic review on modelling approaches for economic losses studies caused by parasites and their associated diseases in cattle. Parasitology 2019; 146(2): 129-141.  Back to cited text no. 117
    
118.
Razakandrainibe R, Diawara EHI, Costa D, Le Goff L, Lemeteil D, Ballet JJ, et al. Common occurrence of Cryptosporidium hominis in asymptomatic and symptomatic calves in France. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(3): e0006355.  Back to cited text no. 118
    
119.
Taghipour A, Olfatifar M, Bahadory S, Godfrey SS, Abdoli A, Khatami A, et al. The global prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vet Parasitol 2020; 281: 109093. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109093.  Back to cited text no. 119
    
120.
Berahmat R, Spotin A, Ahmadpour E, Mahami-Oskouei M, Rezamand A, Aminisani N, et al. Human cryptosporidiosis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasitol Res 2017; 116(4): 1111-1128.  Back to cited text no. 120
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Cryptosporidium infection in cattle and humans in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Zewdu Seyoum Tarekegn,Yeshifana Tigabu,Haileyesus Dejene
Parasite Epidemiology and Control. 2021; : e00219
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
1. Introduction
2. Materials and...
3. Results
4. Discussion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2173    
    Printed28    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded280    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal