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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 515-520

Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship of Hypoderaeum conoideum (Bloch, 1782) Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences


1 Division of Cell Biology, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
2 Walai Rukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
Weerachai Saijuntha
Walai Rukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150
Thailand
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Source of Support: This research was supported by Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Thailand to CT, grant number 2-18/2562, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.295362

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Objective: To explore genetic variations of Hypoderaeum conoideum collected from domestic ducks from 12 different localities in Thailand and Lao PDR, as well as their phylogenetic relationship with American and European isolates. Methods: The nucleotide sequences of their nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) were used to analyze genetic diversity indices. Results: We found relatively high levels of nucleotide polymorphism in ND1 (4.02%), whereas moderate and low levels were observed in CO1 (2.11%) and ITS (0.96%), respectively. Based on these polymorphisms, the 20 ND1, 12 CO1, and 18 ITS haplotypes were classified, and several common haplotypes were observed in all samples. At least three major lineages, namely American, European and Asian lineages, have been classified by phylogenetic analyses based on ND1 sequences. Conclusions: Our report demonstrates that the ND1 gene is the most suitable genetic marker to explore genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship of Hypoderaeum conoideum. However, a combination of all loci for ND1, CO1 and ITS would be of great value toward further genetic investigation of this endemic worldwide parasite. Thus, comprehensive molecular genetic analyses of Hypoderaeum conoideum from its worldwide distribution is needed to further understanding of the evolutionary and systematic relationships of this parasite.


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