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   2019| July  | Volume 12 | Issue 7  
    Online since July 9, 2019

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Potential of herbal constituents as new natural leads against helminthiasis: A neglected tropical disease
Kiran D Patil, Shashikant B Bagade, Sanjay R Sharma, Ketan V Hatware
July 2019, 12(7):291-299
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.262072  
The WHO reports that billions of people and animals in tropical and subtropical regions are affected by helminthiasis as neglected tropical disease. It is predominant in underdeveloped areas; nevertheless, the increase in the number of travelers and migrants has made this infection more common. The current mass drug treatment produces severe side effects and many strains of helminths are resistant to them. None of the chemotherapeutic drugs meets the ideal requirements of anthelmintics, such as broad spectrum of activity, single dose cure, free from side effect and cost-effectiveness. Today, many researchers are screening the traditional herbal system in search of the anthelmintic herbal constituents which overcome all the problems of synthetic drugs. Several researchers proclaim anthelmintic activity of herbal medicines by using different experimental models. The present review demonstrates natural product drug discovery, outlining potential of herbal constituents from natural sources as natural leads against helminthiasis.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pouteria campechiana leaf extract and its bioactive compound myricitrin are mosquitocidal against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Raju Sangeetha, Tamilselvan Pratheeba, Chinnasamy Ragavendran, Devarajan Natarajan
July 2019, 12(7):321-328
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.262076  
Objective: To test the mosquitocidal potential of leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with different solvents and elucidate the structure of an isolated mosquitocidal compound. Methods: The leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with three solvents (petroleum benzene, ethyl acetate and acetone) and potential bioactive fractions were tested against various stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus by using the WHO protocols, and the chemical profile and its functional groups were identified by GC-MS and Fourier transmission-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The structure of bioactive compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral technique. Results: The preliminary phytochemical results revealed the presence of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids in the acetone extract. A significant toxic potential was observed in the acetone extract against both Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The acetone extract exhibits remarkable larvicidal (LC50: 12.232 μg/mL and LC90: 63.970 μg/mL), pupicidal (LC50: 18.949 μg/mL and LC,0: 167.669 μg/mL) and adulticidal (LC50: 20.689 μg/mL and LC90: 72.881 μg/mL) effects against Aedes aegypti. Furthermore, the same extract was subjected to isolation of bioactive compound by GC- MS and FT-IR analysis. GC-MS results showed the presence of 5 major compounds, and octacosane (18.440%) was detected as the predominant compound. The FT-IR result of acetone extract demonstrated the presence of various functional groups like alkanes/alkynes, ester, aromatic and amides. The NMR spectrum results of isolated compound were well matched to glycoside linked flavonoids. Based on the chromatography and spectral techniques the isolate molecule was identified as myricitrin by FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. Conclusion: The isolated compound myricitrin possesses a significant toxic effect in all stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito’s with lowest LC50 and LC90 values.
  414 130 -
Visceral leishmaniasis among children in an endemic area of northwestern Iran between 2016 and 2017: An epidemiological study
Hamed Behniafar, Vahideh Moin-Vaziri, Mehdi Mohebali, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei, Zabih Zarei, Elham Kazemirad, Behnaz Akhoundi, Mohammad Kazem Saharifi-Yazdi, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani
July 2019, 12(7):306-314
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.262074  
Objective: To clarify the epidemiological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in Kaleybar and Khoda-Afarin districts, north-west of Iran. Methods: A total of 1 420 human (children under 12 years) samples, 101 domestic dogs samples (Canis familiaris), and 577 female sand fly samples were collected. Sera of human and dogs were tested using the direct agglutination test, and sand flies were identified at species level using the microscopic method. Furthermore, a structured questionnaire was applied to evaluate the correlation between the potential risk factors and the related clinical signs/ symptoms with the human and dogs’ seropositivity. Results: Totally, 2.18% of human samples were positive at titers≥: 800; among them, 13 cases (41.94%) were above 1:3 200, and clinical symptoms were observed in all of them except for an 11-year old girl. Anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies were found at titers ≥1: 320 in 9.90% of dogs’ samples, half of them had at least one sign of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Moreover, 10 Phlebotomus species were identified in the study areas, and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) major group was the predominant species. There are significant correlations between the presence of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies and the fever (P<0.001), anemia (P=0.001) and weight loss (P=0.016) in children. On the other hand, significant correlations were revealed between the Leishmania infection and the shelter (P=0.039), cutaneous lesion (P=0.005), lymphadenopathy (P=0.001) and weight loss (P<0.001) in the infected dogs. Conclusions: Visceral Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Kaleybar and Khoda- Afar districts located in East-Azerbaijan province, therefore active detection and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases should not be neglected.
  375 118 -
Leishmaniasis in the Argentine Republic: Temporal and geographical distribution from 2013 to 2017
María J Germano, María C Salomón, Gisela Neira, Esteban Lozano, Juan P Mackern-Oberti, Diego E Cargnelutti
July 2019, 12(7):300-305
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.262073  
Objective: To assess the temporal and geographical distribution of confirmed cases of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the Argentine Republic from 2013 to 2017. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using data collected from the Integrated Surveillance Bulletin database of the National System of Health Surveillance. Confirmed cases of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis up to the 52nd epidemiological week of each year was included. Results: In the 5 years period, 1 295 confirmed leishmaniasis cases were reported in the Argentine Republic. One thousand twenty-eight (1 028) cases corresponded to cutaneous leishmaniasis (87.10%), being the most common type of leishmaniasis. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was in the second place in the country with 115 cases reported, mostly in the Northwest and Northeast regions. A total of 52 individuals with visceral leishmaniasis were identified and Misiones Province was the most affected. Conclusions: It is important to analyze the temporal and geographical distribution of leishmaniasis in order to provide an adequate management and surveillance.
  349 114 -
Impact of seasonality on the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia lamblia infections among the aborigines
Samseh Abdullah Noradilah, Norhayati Moktar, Ii Li Lee, Fatmah Md Salleh, Tengku Shahrul Anuar
July 2019, 12(7):315-320
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.262075  
Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia (G.) lamblia infections among the aboriginal community during the wet and dry seasons. Methods: A total of 473 stool samples from the aborigines in Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia were collected during wet (n=256) and dry seasons (n=217). Smear of all the PVA-preserved stool samples were subjected to Trichrome staining and microscopic examination under 1 000 x magnification (Nikon eclipse E100) for the detection of G. lamblia. Positivity was recorded based on the presence of G. lamblia in trophozoite and/or cyst forms. Results: The prevalence of giardiasis was 12.10% and 8.29% during the wet and dry season, respectively. Age of less or equal to 15 years old and presence of other family members with G. lamblia infection were found to be the significant risk factors to acquire G. lamblia infections during both seasons. Untreated water supply was the significant risk factor of giardiasis during the dry season. This study highlighted the possibility of anthroponotic transmission of G. lamblia during both seasons and waterborne transmission during the dry season in the aboriginal community. Conclusions: This study suggests that seasonal variation plays an important role in the prevalence and risk factor of G. lamblia infection in the aboriginal community. Therefore, close contact with Giardia-infected family members and water-related activities or usage of untreated water must be avoided to reduce the burden of G. lamblia infection in this community.
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Toxicological characterization and central nervous system effects of Calotropis procera Ait. aqueous extracts in mice
Prosper T Kinda, Samson Guenné, Moussa Compaoré, Balé Bayala, Alin Ciobica, Raymond Belemtougri, Martin Kiendrebéogo
July 2019, 12(7):329-336
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.262077  
Objective: To evaluate the toxicological and psychotropic properties of Calotropis (C.) procera. Methods: C. procera leaves and root-bark aqueous extracts were evaluated for their toxic and behavioral effects using adult mice. Toxicity studies were carried out using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines 423 and 407 for acute and subacute evaluation. Behavioral studies were performed using traction test, fireplace test, hole-board test and forced-swimming test to evaluate the sedative, anxiety and depressive-like activities of the extracts. Results: Very low acute toxicity was observed in mice that received both leaves and root-bark extracts. The subacute test showed some morphological, biochemical and hematological changes in the treated groups. Behavioral assessment demonstrated anxiety effects on mice for C. procera leaf extract (400 mg/kg of body weight). Conclusions: The acute use of C. procera (leaves and root-barks) aqueous extracts could be considered as low toxic. However, their repeated uses could have harmful effect on some organs. Likewise, a single dose up to 400 mg/kg body weight of these extracts produce no sedative or depressive-like effect, but they possess possible dose dependent anxiety effect. Yet, more studies are necessary to relate these results to the chemical profile of the plant extracts.
  248 120 -
CASE REPORT
Disseminated cysticercosis presenting with bilateral proptosis: A case report
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Neeraj Kumar, Imran Rizvi, Hardeep Singh Malhotra
July 2019, 12(7):337-338
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.262078  
Rationale: Disseminated cysticercosis is characterized by presence of cysts in multiple body organs, like brain, skin, eyes, muscles and rarely heart and lungs. Patient concerns: A 22-year-old man presented with bilateral proptosis of 1-year duration. He also had two episodes of cysticercosis encephalitis. In the second episode of encephalopathy, the patient died. Diagnosis: Disseminated cysticercosis. Interventions: Corticosteroids (Initially intravenous dexamethasone 0.4 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, followed by oral prednisolone 1.0 mg/kg/day). Outcomes: The patient died of cysticercosis encephalitis approximately 2 months later. Lessons: Disseminated cysticercosis in our case presented only with proptosis as he had very heavy infestation of the brain and eyes. Heavy larval infestation in a patient with disseminated cysticercosis can be life-threatening.
  262 76 -