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   2018| November  | Volume 11 | Issue 11  
    Online since November 30, 2018

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Brucellosis: Pathophysiology and new promising treatments with medicinal plants and natural antioxidants
Mohsen Alizadeh, Ali Safarzadeh, Mahmoud Bahmani, Fatemeh Beyranvand, Mehdi Mohammadi, Kimia Azarbaijani, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Saber Abbaszadeh
November 2018, 11(11):597-608
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.246336  
Brucellosis is an old, infectious and common zoonosis whose causative agents are Gramnegative bacteria from the Brucella genus. Brucellosis is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or using unpasteurized dairy products of goats, pigs, camels, sheep, buffalo and cows. Brucellosis is still the most common zoonosis in the world, with most of cases occurring in developing countries. Today, an approach to traditional medicine and medicinal plants, especially with regards to the repeated recommendations of the World Health Organization, is a necessity. One-third of chemical drugs are produced by using plants and there is a high potential to produce more drugs from plants. Medicinal plants are helpful in the management of various conditions, especially bacterial diseases. Although there is not enough scientific evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness of herbal drugs for the treatment of brucellosis, there is strong evidence on the antimicrobial effects of herbal drugs to prevent infection. Therefore, this article seeks to describe the antibacterial effects of some plant-derived essential oils or extracts, so that they can serve as promising choices to develop new anti-Brucella medications, as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics for brucellosis, as much as possible, taking into account the benefits of these herbal drugs.
  6,790 592 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Plants used in traditional medicine for treatment of malaria by Tetun ethnic people in West Timor Indonesia
Maximus M Taek, Bambang EW Prajogo, Mangestuti Agil
November 2018, 11(11):630-637
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.246339  
Objective: To document the medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria by the Tetun ethnic people in West Timor–Indonesia. Methods: The ethnobotany and anthropology methods were used in the field surveys. Ninety four informants from 29 villages of 15 sub-districts in Belu and Malaka were interviewed since April to December 2017. Medicinal plants specimen were collected from the field and identified according to taxonomic methods. Results: Ninety six medicinal plants species belong to 41 families were found to be used by the Tetun ethnic people in their traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. These plants have been used in various formulas for drinking, massage, bath, inhalation or cataplasm. Strychnos ligustrina, Calotropis gigantea, Cleome rutidosperma, Physalis angulata, Alstonia spectabilis, Carica papaya, Melia azedarach, Alstonia scholaris, Jatropha curcas, Garuga floribunda, and Tamarindus indica were the most cited plants. Conclusions: The documented plants are valuable sources for the future development of new drugs and strategies to support malaria eliminating programs that are culturally acceptable in these areas.
  5,464 516 2
Larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of essential oils from Umbelliferae plants against house fly Musca domestica
Aksorn Chantawee, Mayura Soonwera
November 2018, 11(11):621-629
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.246338  
Objective: To evaluate the toxicity against house fly Musca domestica L. (M. domestica)-larvicidal, pupicidal, and oviposition deterrent activities of essential oils (EOs) from five plants: Anethum graveolens L. (A. graveolens), Centratherum anthelminticum L. (C. anthelminticum), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum), and Trachyspermum ammi L. (T. ammi) Sprague. Methods: Dipping, topical and dual-choice assays were performed by using each EO at three concentrations (1%, 5% and 10%) as well as cypermethrin (positive control) and ethyl alcohol (negative control) in order to determine their larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent activities against M. domestica mortality rate and morphogenic abnormality of larvae and pupae were recorded after 3 and 10 days of incubation. Oviposition deterrent activity was recorded for 5 consecutive days from the beginning of the assay. Results: All EOs at the highest concentration (10%) were highly effective in oviposition deterrent with 100% effective repellency and an oviposition activity index of -1.00. Ten percent of F. vulgare oil exhibited the highest efficacy against the larvae with 89.6% mortality rate at 3 days and an LC50 value of 5.4%. Ten percent of A. graveolens and T. ammi oils showed the highest efficacy against the pupae with 100% mortality and an LC50 value ranging from 1.81%-2.24%. Conclusions: These results indicate that F. vulgare, A. graveolens and T. ammi EOs are effective larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent agents against house fly M. domestica.
  2,454 408 3
Knowledge, attitudes and practice survey on Zika virus infection among pregnant women in Brunei Darussalam
Li Ling Chaw, Nik A. A. Tuah, Justin Yun Yaw Wong, Lin Naing
November 2018, 11(11):638-644
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.246340  
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) on Zika virus infection among pregnant women in Brunei Darussalam by a cross-sectional survey. Methods: Between February and June 2017, we recruited 234 pregnant women from all government healthcare centres at Brunei-Muara district, using a modified systematic sampling approach. A pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire was used and data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: The study participants were mainly Malay (87.2%) and their mean age was 28.0 years. The median knowledge score was 13, out of a possible score of 28. Most participants (92.7%) knew that Zika virus was transmitted by mosquito bites whereas some (34.6%) knew that sexual transmission was also possible. Media (radio, television or newspapers) was the preferred source of updated information on Zika virus, followed by healthcare workers (44.0%), government announcements (43.2%), and social media (38.0%). Pregnant women who were 25 years old or older [Adj. OR=3.62 (95% CI: 1.57, 9.51)], not Malays [Adj. OR=3.32 (95% CI: 1.35, 8.55)], and had an average monthly household income of more than BND $3 000 [Adj. OR=4.06 (95% CI: 1.81, 19.44)] were more likely to score higher for knowledge on Zika virus. The median prevention practice score was 23, out of a possible score of 36. Most participants reported wearing covering clothes (98.3%) and kept their living surroundings clean (99.6%). Most participants (88.0%) agreed that Zika is an important issue in their community. Conclusion: We found a lack of knowledge on Zika virus infection among pregnant women attending government maternal and child healthcare centres in Brunei Darussalam, in particular that Zika virus can be sexually transmitted. Such information could be well disseminated at the healthcare centre level. Health literacy studies should be conducted to understand the facilitators and barriers of KAP on Zika virus infection among pregnant women.
  2,032 374 2
Propolis modulates cellular biochemistry, antioxidants, cytokine profile, histological and ultra-morphological status against antituberculosis drugs induced hepatic injury
Nisha Sahu, Gita Mishra, Hemeshwer Kumar Chandra, Satendra Kumar Nirala, Monika Bhadauria
November 2018, 11(11):609-620
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.246337  
Objective: To evaluate hepatic injury induced by antituberculosis drugs (ATDs) when administered orally for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and the therapeutic potential of propolis (bee hive product) against ATDs induced hepatic injury. Methods: The ATDs were administered for 8 weeks as well as propolis extract at three different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) conjointly for 8 weeks in rats. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was given as positive control. Animals were euthanized after 8 weeks; blood and liver samples were collected to perform various biochemicals, serological and histopathological and ultramorphological studies. Results: Significant increase (P < 0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride and cholesterol along with reduction in glucose and albumin level were noted after ATDs induced hepatic injury. Significant increase (P < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation, triglyceride, cholesterol and CYP2E1 activity; decline in reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase activity were observed after ATDs intoxication. Due to presence of a wide range of flavonoids and polyphenols in propolis extract, its administration reduced hepatic injury and maintained biochemical indices towards control. Histopathological and electron microscopic observations indicated hepatoprotective potential of propolis at cellular level whereas, TNF-α, IL-6 and IGF-1 confirmed therapeutic potential of propolis at molecular level. Conclusions: It can be concluded that propolis possess hepatoprotective potential against ATDs induced hepatic injury that may prove itself as a clinically useful natural product in management of drug induced liver injury.
  1,530 359 -