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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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August 2018
Volume 11 | Issue 8
Page Nos. 453-500

Online since Friday, August 31, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Potential applications of lactic acid bacteria and bacteriocins in anti-mycobacterial therapy p. 453
Anbarasu Sivaraj, Revathy Sundar, Radhakrishnan Manikkam, Krupakar Parthasarathy, Uma Rani, Vanaja Kumar
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.240080  
Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). WHO estimated that 10.4 million new (incident) TB cases worldwide in year 2016. The increased prevalence of drug resistant strains and side effects associated with the current anti-tubercular drugs make the treatment options more complicated. Hence, there are necessities to identify new drug candidates to fight against various sub-populations of M. tuberculosis with less or no toxicity/side effects and shorter treatment duration. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) attract attention of researchers because of its “Generally recognized as safe” status. LAB and its bacteriocins possess an effective antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi. Interestingly bacteriocins such as nisin and lacticin 3147 have shown antimycobacterial activity in vitro. As probiotics, LAB plays a vital role in promoting various health benefits including ability to modulate immune response against various infectious diseases. LAB and its metabolic products activate immune system and thereby limiting the M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. The protein and peptide engineering techniques paved the ways to obtain hybrid bacteriocin derivatives from the known peptide sequence of existing bacteriocin. In this review, we focus on the antimycobacterial property and immunomodulatory role of LAB and its metabolic products. Techniques for large scale synthesis of potential bacteriocin with multifunctional activity and enhanced stability are also discussed.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Dengue outbreaks in Taiwan, 1998-2017: Importation, serotype and temporal pattern p. 460
Ying-Hen Hsieh
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.240081  
Objective: To ascertain the role of imported cases and serotypes on dengue outbreaks in Taiwan which have been sporadic yet highly volatile during the past two decades, exhibiting record-breaking magnitude in recent years. Methods: Confirmed case and serotype data from Taiwan Centers for Disease Control during 1998-2017 were fully examined, with fitting of weekly and daily case data of each city/county to a mathematical model to pinpoint the waves of cases and their locations. Moreover, we quantify the timing of turning point and transmission potential of each wave and determine its circulating serotype, to ascertain any pattern or connection between the variations in circulating serotypes and the magnitude/transmissibility of outbreak. Results: While the number of imported case increased steadily during past two decades, the yearly number of indigenous cases fluctuated wildly. Moreover, while yearly percentages of serotypes for imported cases remains steady, that of indigenous cases does not exhibit any clear pattern. There was at least one wave of reported cases somewhere in Taiwan every year from 1998 to 2015, except in 2016-2017. The effective reproduction number R for all waves in all locations ranged from 1.14 to 2.87, with the exception of two Tainan waves, in 2010 (3.95) and 2015 (6.84). Four major outbreaks of over 2000 cases reveal circulation of one dominant serotype. Conclusions: Correlation between imported cases and indigenous outbreak prove to be difficult to ascertain, even with the availability of serotype data. However, although there had been occasional co-circulation of serotypes in one location, and for some years with different serotypes circulating in different locations, all major outbreaks of over 2 000 cases during the past two decades are due to circulation of mainly a single serotype, perhaps indicating greater transmission potential with one dominating serotype.
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Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extract on ethanol withdrawal syndrome in Wistar rats p. 467
Lalit Sharma, Aditi Sharma, GL Gupta, Gopal Singh Bisht
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.240082  
Objective: To evaluate the effects of Oscimum sanctum L (O. sanctum), an important medicinal herb, on alcohol withdrawal syndrome in Wistar rats. Methods: Liquid diet with 7.2%, v/v ethanol was administered to the rats for 21 d. Control group animals received sucrose as an isocaloric liquid diet. After alcohol withdrawal, rats were examined at 6th and 24th hour for major withdrawal signs that included anxiety and hyper locomotor activity. Ethanol withdrawal anxiety was tested using elevated plus maze, light and dark model; the hyper locomotor activity using actophotometer. O. sanctum leaf extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, oral) and diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p) were administered to the treatment group animals 30 min before alcohol withdrawal estimation. Drug treatment was also given 30 min before the second observation at 24th hour. On the last day of the protocol, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation liver, kidney and brain were isolated and preserved in formalin for further histopathological examination. Results: Findings from the present study revealed that O. Sanctum leaf extract treatment at doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, oral had a significant protective effect on signs and symptoms of ethanol withdrawal in alcohol-dependent rats. However, no remarkable pathological and microscopic alterations were observed in histopathological examination. Conclusions:O. sanctum seems to be an active drug for the treatment of alcohol abstinence syndrome.
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Antihypertensive efficacy of extract of Hedera helix in high salt-induced hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats p. 473
Umme Salma, Taous Khan, Abdul Jabbar Shah
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.240083  
Objective: To explore the antihypertensive effect of extracts from the leaves of Hedera helix (H. helix) on normotensive and hypertensive rats in-vivo followed by vasodilatory studies in-vitro. Methods: The crude methanolic extract was prepared and the activity directed fractionation was carried out. Spectrophotometric analysis of total phenolic and flavonoid content was also done. HPLC analysis was performed for the detection of hederacoside C. In-vivo blood pressure study was carried out in normotensive and high salt-induced hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Isolated aortic tissues from rat and rabbit were used for in-vitro studies. The effects were recorded and analyzed through PowerLab data acquisition system. Results: Crude extract of H. helix (1-30 mg/kg) decreased blood pressure to greater extent in high salt-induced hypertensive rats in-vivo compared to the normotensive [Max. fall (58.59±0.02) mmHg vs. (67.53±3.07) mmHg]. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were also checked. These fractions were more effective in hypertensive rats. Aqueous fraction was more potent and n-hexane the least. In isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, crude extract induced endothelium-dependent effect. The endothelium-dependent component of vasodilatory effect was ablated with L-NAME, and denudation of endothelium. The aqueous fraction was most potent vasodilator. In aortic rings from hypertensive rats, extract and fractions produced partial endothelium-independent effect which was not affected by pretreatment with L-NAME, indicating endothelium dysfunction in the hypertensive rats and suggesting additional vasodilatory mechanisms. In rabbit aorta, the extract and fractions also inhibited phenylephrine and high K+ -induced precontractions, and shifted Ca++ concentration-response curves. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that extract and fractions of H. helix are antihypertensive remedies, which is the outcome of vasodilatory effect. This vasodilatory effect is mediated through nitric oxide and Ca++ antagonism.
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Comparative phytochemical analysis of Coffea benghalensis Roxb Ex Schult, Coffea arabica L. and Coffea liberica Hiern p. 480
Éva Brigitta Patay, Ágnes Alberti, Orsolya Csernák, Szilvia Stranczinger, Nóra Papp
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.240084  
Objective: To make phytochemical studies of the leaf, pericarp and seed of Coffea benghalensis (C. Benghalensis) compared with those of the widely known Coffea arabica and Coffea liberica. Methods: The sample extracts were prepared by Soxhlet-extraction. Polyphenol content was analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, the identification was carried out based on the retention time, UV and mass spectra of standards and literature data of the detected compounds. Results: Phenolic acids like caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids and coumaroylquinic acid, as well as mangiferin were detected as main constituents in all extracts. Procyanidin trimers were present exclusively in the leaves. In C. benghalensis, main constituents were 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 4-caffeoylquinic acid. Flavan-3-ols were described in all immature and mature pericarp and leaf extracts. Even though 4-feruloylquinic acid was described in both immature and mature seed, dicaffeoylquinic acids were identified only in the mature seed extracts. Mangiferin was present in the leaf, mature pericarp and seed. Conclusions: These analyses provide new chemotaxonomical data for the selected coffees, especially for C. benghalensis. Due to its high polyphenol content, our results indicate its significance of providing new data as a possible source for industry.
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Chemical compositions and biological activities of essential oils obtained from some Apiaceous and Lamiaceous plants collected in Thailand p. 486
Nawanit Thanaseelungkoon, Jakaphun Julsrigival, Kulwadee Phannachet, Sunee Chansakaow
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.240085  
Objective: To determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant, antityrosinase and antibacterial activities of essential oils obtained from some Apiaceous and Lamiaceous plants collected in Thailand. Methods: The essential oils of the specified spices and aromatic herbs were obtained by hydro-distillation, and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant assays were based on the scavenging effects of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals as well as the lipid oxidation inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching by linoleic acid. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was evaluated by the dopachrome method. Broth microdilution technique was performed for the purposes of studying microbial growth inhibition against the isolated bacterial strains. Results: The essential oils of Elsholtzia stachyodes, Coleus amboinicus (I) and Trachyspermum ammi presented a high degree of potency in DPPH, ABTS and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The Trachyspermum ammi oil, which mainly contained thymol (49.04%) and p-cymene (22.06%), proved to be the most effective in terms of antibacterial activity. The major compositions of Coleus amboinicus (I) were carvacrol (51.57%), y-terpinene (18.04%) and p-cymene (7.81%); while thymol (43.76%) and y-terpinene (24.61%) were identified as the major components of Elsholtzia stachyodes oil, with p-cymene (6.73%) being identified as a minor constituent. Moreover, Cuminum cyminum oil containing cuminaldehyde (49.07%) and Elsholtzia communis oil composed with geranial (44.74%) and neral (35.27%) as the major components displayed a specific ability for the inhibition of the mushroom tyrosinase enzyme. Conclusions: The results indicated that these bioactive essential oils obtained from indigenous herbs are of significant interest as alternative raw materials in food, cosmetic and medicinal products.
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Molecular detection of Leishmania species in human and animals from cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic areas of Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan p. 495
Mubashir Hussain, Shahzad Munir, Abdullah Jalal, Taj Ali Khan, Niaz Muhammad, Bahar Ullah Khattak, Abdullah Khan, Irfan Ahmed, Zulqarnain Baloch, Nawaz Haider Bashir, Muhammad Ameen Jamal, Kashif Rahim, Humaira Mazhar, Maira Riaz, Noha Watany
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.240086  
Objectives: To detect Leishmania species in human patients, animal reservoirs and Phlebotomus sandflies in Waziristan, Pakistan. Methods: Tissue smears and aspirates from 448 cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) suspected patients were analyzed. To sort out role of the reservoir hosts, skin scrapings, spleen and liver samples from 104 rodents were collected. Furthermore, buffy coat samples were obtained from 60 domestic animals. Sandflies were also trapped. All human, animals and sandfly samples were tested by microscopy, kinetoplastic PCR and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism for detection of Leishmania species. Results: An overall prevalence of 3.83% and 5.21% through microscopy and ITS1 PCR respectively was found. However, the statistically non-significant correlation was found between area, gender, and number of lesions. The presence of rodents, sandflies, domestic animals and internally displaced people increased the risk of CL. Using ITS1-PCR-RFLP, Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) was confirmed in 106 samples while 25 of the isolates were diagnosed as Leishmania major (L. major). Similarly, 3/104 rodents were positive for L. major and 14 pools of DNA samples containing Phlebotomus sergenti sandflies were positive for L. tropica. None of samples from domestic animals were positive for leishmaniasis. Conclusions: In the present study, L. tropica and L. major are found to be the main causative agents of CL in study area. Movement of internally displaced people from CL endemic areas presents a risk for nearby CL free areas. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time L. major infection in rodents (Rattus rattus) and L. tropica in Phlebotomus sergenti sandflies trapped in Waziristan, Pakistan.
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