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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April 2019
Volume 12 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 147-194

Online since Tuesday, April 30, 2019

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Herbal remedies, vaccines and drugs for dengue fever: Emerging prevention and treatment strategies p. 147
Rinku Rozera, Surajpal Verma, Ravi Kumar, Anzarul Haque, Anshul Attri
Dengue fever is a disease that is caused by five dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. It is endemic in more than 128 countries. Millions of people are affected by this disease. But still, there is no specific treatment available till now to combat it. Some of the preventive measures using plant extracts showed certain promising ovicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. There are some vaccines as preventive measure and antiviral agents to cure the dengue fever, which are under clinical trials but their results have not been reported or approved yet. Dengvaxia is the only licensed vaccine to prevent dengue fever in some South American countries, but it is not approved by other regulatory authorities worldwide. Scientific research has been going on to find a permanent cure for dengue fever, but till now, no successful invention has been done. There are some general treatments for dengue patient by employing analgesics and fluid replacement; however, specific treatment is needed to overcome the lethal effect of dengue fever. Since this disease has affected millions of people and not much invention has been made in this field; therefore, advancement in dengue therapy is required for the safety and well-being of dengue patients. Herein we collectively describe the different chemotherapeutics agents, alternative methods like vaccines and antiviral agents to prevent and cure this lethal disease. Furthermore, the future perspective for the treatment of dengue is discussed in this review.
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Morphometric discrimination between females of two isomorphic sand fly species, Phlebotomus caucasicus and Phlebotomus mongolensis (Diptera: Phlebotominae) in endemic and non-endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran p. 153
Azad Absavaran, Mehdi Mohebali, Vahideh Moin-Vaziri, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Fariba Mozaffarian, Sayena Rafizadeh, Yavar Rassi
Objective: To delineate reliable morphological characteristics for identifying and separating female Phlebotomus caucasicus and Phlebotomus mongolensis which exist sympatrically in the main foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Methods: Sand flies were collected using sticky trap papers from active colonies of rodent burrows installed from 16 catching sites. Morphometric measurements were analyzed of 87 Phlebotomus caucasicus and 156 Phlebotomus mongolensis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were carried out to determine significant morphometric variables for discrimination of the two species. Finally, seven morphological characteristics of 65 female Phlebotomus caucasicus and 124 female Phlebotomus mongolensis were described. Results: Univariate and multivariate analyses of 10 morphometric variables via Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that five morphometric variables had an accuracy of 100% for discriminating female Phlebotomus caucasicus and Phlebotomus mongolensis. Moreover, PCA revealed that the five morphometric variables with the highest loadings separated these two species. Morphological studies on antennal flagellum (and its associated structures) and mouth-parts of female specimens demonstrated significant differences in several structures. Conclusions: The results show that morphological and morphometrical features can be used to discriminate two female isomorphic species, Phlebotomus caucasicus and Phlebotomus mongolensis accurately.
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Characterization of the salivary microbiome in healthy Thai children p. 163
Izumi Mashima, Citra F Theodorea, Boonyanit Thaweboon, Sroisiri Thaweboon, Tippanart Vichayanrat, Frank A Scannapieco, Futoshi Nakazawa
Objective: To investigate the composition of the salivary microbiome of 50 healthy Thai children. Methods: A total 76 provinces in Thailand are grouped into 5 geographical clusters based on unique economics, foods and lifestyles. Geographical locations and the results of an oral assessment were also considered. Genomic DNA was extracted from stimulated sdiva samples. Subsequently, amplicon libraries were prepared by 16S Metagenomic Sequencing Library Preparation. The amplicons were sequenced using an Illumina Miseq platform followed by bioinformatics and statistical analyses. Results: The correlation between oral hygiene status and caries history varied from r2=0.887 to r2=0.999 in the geographical groups, suggesting oral hygiene status a strong association between caries history. Twenty taxonomic groups were found in all subjects and constituted 93.6%-96.5% of the microbiome. Of these, genus Veillonella and Prevotella showed significant differences in their proportions between the geographical groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the proportion of Veillonella parvula, as well as Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa tended to increase with worse oral hygiene status, which was also related to higher dental caries history. Conclusions: The differences in the salivary microbiome as related to geographic regions suggest that environmental factors, which may include dietary habits, could influence the predominant bacteria found in the mouth of Thai children, especially the genus Veillonella and Prevotella. The ratio of Veillonella parvula, Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa may be indicators of worse oral hygiene status and future caries in this population.
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Wild chive oil is an extremely effective larvicide against malaria mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi p. 170
Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Yaser Salim Abadi, Azim Paksa
Objective: To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oil of wild chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.) against Anopheles stephensi. Methods: In the search for an environmentally safer alternative mosquitoes control, the larvicidal efficacy of essential oil obtained from the leaves of Allium schoenoprasum L. against Anopheles stephensi was determined. The composition of chive essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: In toxicity assays, the essential oil demonstrated substantial larvicidal activity against larvae of Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 2.60, and 7.31 ppm after 24 h of exposure, respectively. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of chive essential oil identified 35 components representing more than 97.31% of the total essential oil. The main constituents were sulfur compounds, including diallyl trisulfide (13.72%), 2-ethyl[1,3]dithiane (8.93%), allyl methyl trisulfide (8.77%), and trimethylene trisulfide (6.64%), respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that wild chive essential oil has a rich source of eco-friendly bioactive compounds for use as a mosquito larvicide. The main reason for its extraordinary properties may be related to the high percentage of sulfur compounds.
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Misinformation on salt water use among Nigerians during 2014 Ebola outbreak and the role of social media p. 175
Ahmed Dahiru Balami, Hadiza Umar Meleh
Objective: To determine the spread of misinformation on salt water among Nigerians, salt water use for Ebola prophylaxis, and the role played by the social media during the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Methods: Information was collected from the general Nigerian population through online Google forms which were majorly disseminated via Facebook and WhatsApp platforms. The data retrieved was analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 703 questionnaires were included in the final analysis. The respondents’ mean age was (30.2±6.7) years, predominantly male (73.2%). Almost all of them (95.0%) had received some message to use salt water, 37.4% of whom received such message on social media. Around a half of them ever made an attempt to verify the health information they received on social media (50.9%), and about a quarter (24.0%) of them had used salt water during the outbreak. Many of them had used salt water because they believed it would not harm them (52.0%). Salt water was less likely to be used by those who had received such message on social media, as well as by those who had received some contrary information to salt use. Conclusions: Social media could serve as an effective tool in propagating health information and should be actively engaged by health agencies, to spread accurate information.
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Latent tuberculosis infection among medical students in Malaysia p. 181
Maha Abdullah, Ummi Nadira Daut, Siti Aishah Daud, Nor Afifi Mohd Romli, Marsitah Abdul Jalil, Noorelina Muhammad, Safarina Mohammad Ismuddin, Masriana Hassan
Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among medical students and tuberculosis exposure at the health facilities. Methods: A cross-section of study year 1 (n=68) and year 5 (n=75) medical students in a local university were recruited for latent tuberculosis infection testing using QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus and a questionnaire analyzed for multivariate risk. Results: The majority of the study were vaccinated with BCG. None of year 1 medical students were positive for latent tuberculosis infection, however, six (8.0%) year 5 students were tested positive for latent tuberculosis infection. A higher incidence of year 5 medical students claimed to be exposed to tuberculosis at health facility (65.3% vs. 4.4%) and a higher percentage reported contact with tuberculosis case over the preceding year compared to year 1 students (30.7% vs. 8.8%). Conclusion: We observed a higher incidence of latent tuberculosis infection and higher exposure to tuberculosis in health facilities among year 5 medical students. Baseline screening and monitoring for progression to tuberculosis infection may benefit tuberculosis management programs.
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Disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum: A case report and literature review p. 185
Shu-Wei Zheng
Rationale: Disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum is rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. Patient concerns: A 59 year old male patient complained of painful soft tissue swellings and fever for two days. Diagnosis: Disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. Interventions: Initial antimicrobial therapy with imipenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was switched to 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, linezolid and tigecycline after sensitivity test results were available. Thereafter, the patient was switched to maintenance trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and moxifloxacin. Prednisolone was gradually tapered. Outcomes: Soft tissue swelling and pain disappeared and the patient was discharged uneventfully. Lessons: Disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum should be suspected in immunocompetent hosts with risk factors such as medication with prednisolone. Early identification of the causative species and susceptibility results is crucial given the diverse resistance patterns amongst various Nocardia species.
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