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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
December 2018
Volume 11 | Issue 12
Page Nos. 645-692

Online since Wednesday, December 26, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Salacca zalacca: A short review of the palm botany, pharmacological uses and phytochemistry p. 645
Mohammed S. M. Saleh, Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Ahmed Mediani, Nor Hadiani Ismail, Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Siti Zaiton Mat So'ad, Salima Saidi-Besbes
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.248321  
Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss (family Arecaceae) is the snake fruit commonly known in Malay language as salak in Malaysia. This exotic fruit has diverse and potential pharmacological properties due to its high antioxidant content. It is often consumed due to its sweet taste. The abundant natural sugar and fibre along with minerals and vitamin makes it a nutritious fruit. Phytochemical investigation on this fruit has revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides as well as some volatile and aromatic compounds, including gallic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, lycopene and β-carotene. Pharmacological studies on the fruit flesh and peel have shown some tremendous antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidiabetic potential. This review provides the botanical information of Salacca zalacca as well as its scientific investigations involving the distinct pharmacological and phytochemical benefits. This could help in highlighting the lacking data and research gaps on this plant.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Immune enhancement effect of an herb complex extract through the activation of natural killer cells and the regulation of cytokine levels in a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression rat model p. 653
Sung Min Woo, Woo Rin Choi, Dooly Jang, Chun Sik Yi, Hae Lim Kim, Kyung Hyeon Kim, Jong Tae Kim, Won Hee Choi, Seung Hee Jang, Min Jeung Kim, Ji Hyang Wee, Yeon Ki Kim, Bao Le, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo Won Suh
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.248322  
Objective: To investigate the effects of a herb complex extract (HCE) prepared from Cornus officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc., Eriobotrya japonica Lindley, and olive leaves on immune response of mouse spleen NK cells in vitro and in vivo analysis. Methods: The activity of natural killer (NK) cells was measured in splenocytes and YAC-1 cells. Mice were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg body weight). Three different doses of HCE (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight) and red ginseng extract (800 mg/kg body weight) which was used as standard immunomodulatory herb were administered orally for 4 weeks. The body weight, dietary, water intake, organs (liver, thymus, and spleen) weight, completed blood count, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukin-2) production was measured. Results: At the maximum concentration of HCE, the activity of NK cells was increased by 48.5%. HCE increased liver, spleen, and thymus weights without altering numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression rat model. However, HCE recovered the inhibited cytokine expression; HCE (800 mg/kg) increased cytokines levels. The results indicate the immune enhancement potential of this HCE. Conclusion: The HCE enhances immunity by increasing NK cell activity, regulating cytokine levels, and maintaining spleen weight. Therefore, it may be used as a potential immunity enhancer.
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Phytocompounds of Anonna muricata leaves extract and cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells p. 659
Husna Syakirah Ab Rahman, Wan Suriyani Wan-Ibrahim, Norzila Ismail, Tuan Nadrah Naim Tuan Ismail, Siti Farhanah Mohd-Salleh, Michael Pak-Kai Wong, Mohd Ridzuan Abdul Samad, Mohd Nizam Md Hashim
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.248337  
Objective: To identify the phytochemical compounds from Annona muricata (A. muricata) and to determine their in vitro anti-proliferative activities against breast cancer cells, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. Methods: A. muricata leaves were successively extracted by soxhlet method using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol, and decocted with water. Each extract was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and characterized with Wiley and NIST library searches. Anti-proliferative activity of each extract was evaluated on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using MTT assay. Results: The GCMS analysis of different solvent extracts of A. muricata leaves showed presence of different chemical groups of compounds such as steroids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, sugars, sugars alcohol and others including vitamin E. Ethyl acetate leaves extract exhibited the lowest IC50 value on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell and n-hexane leaves extract showed the the lowest IC50 value on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell. Conclusion: Steroids and phenolic compounds were the main phytocompound groups identified from all A. muricata leaves extracts. The antiproliferative activity of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extract towards breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively might be due to the presence of biologically active compounds in the extracts, hence, providing some scientific evidences of the effectiveness of its traditional usages.
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Screening of antiproliferative activity mediated through apoptosis pathway in human non-small lung cancer A-549 cells by active compounds present in medicinal plants p. 666
Nutan V Badgujar, Kinnari N Mistry, Dharamshibhai N Rank, Chaitanya G Joshi
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.248338  
Objective: To explore the antiproliferative activity and apoptosis in cells caused by active compounds present in plants using different techniques. Methods: We investigated the antiproliferative effects of methanolic extracts from different parts of seven plants on A-549 (lung cancer) cells and primary cell culture (chick embryo fibroblast cells, as normal cells) using MTT assay and the potent plant was fractioned further. All these fractions were screened again for anti-proliferative activity. DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining were used to study apoptosis. Quantitative real-time was used to investigate the expression of apoptotic-related genes. LC-MS and 1H-NMR techniques were used to identify the active compounds present. EnzCheck caspase-3 assay kit was used to measure caspase-3 activity. Results: Methanolic extract of Vitex negundo (V. negundo) was selected as a potent fraction. Among all fractions screened, ethylacetate fraction of V. negundo was selected as the most potent antiproliferative fraction and phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of secondary metabolites. Ethaylacetate fraction of V. negundo was found to cause characteristic apoptotic morphological changes and generation of ROS in A-549 cells. Ethaylacetate fraction of V. negundo also induced apoptosis in A-549 which was supported by DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining. To investigate the molecular mechanism behind the cytotoxic effect of ethaylacetate fraction of V. negundo, quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure expression levels of p53, bax, bcl2, casp-3 and casp-9. Using LC-MS and 1H-NMR techniques, cytotoxic compounds (luteolin and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified which increased casp-3 activity in a dose and time-dependent manner in A-549 treated cells. Conclusions: It is concluded from the present study that V. negundo is capable of triggering growth-inhibitive and apoptosis effects in A-549 cells, signifying that V. negundo may possesses anti-lung cancer activity.
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican variety) husk p. 676
Adriana Mendez-Flores, Ayerim Hérnandez-Almanza, Aidé Sáenz-Galindo, Jesús Morlett-Chávez, Cristóbal N Aguilar, Juan Ascacio-Valdés
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.248339  
Objective: To reach the recovery and identification of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican variety) husk using ultrasound-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity. Methods: Rambutan husk extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction, mass/ volume ratio, water/ethanol percentage and extraction time were evaluated. Once the best extraction condition of polyphenolic compounds was defined, a polyphenolic fraction was recovered using Ambetlite XAD-16. The total content of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds was determined by summation of the total hydrolysable polyphenol and total condensed polyphenol contents. Recovered compounds were identified by FTIR (ATR) spectroscopy and HPLC/ESI/MS. The antioxidant activity was carried out by ABTS, DPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition in vitro methods. Results: In Mexican variety rambutan husk, the total polyphenolic content was 487.67 mg/g, after ultrasound-assisted extraction. According to the HPLC/ESI/MS analysis 12 antioxidant polyphenolic compounds were identified, mostly ellagitannins such as geraniin, corilagin and ellagic acid. The antioxidant activity determined by ABTS, DPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition methods was demonstrated. The main functional groups of the identified compounds were determined by FTIR analysis. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that ultrasound-assisted extraction was effective and allowed the extraction and recovery of antioxidant polyphenolic compounds. Furthermore Mexican variety rambutan husk is an important source for recovering polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, these compounds have potential application for the treatment/prevention of various diseases related to cancer and pathogenic microorganisms.
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High resolution melting real-time PCR detect and identify filarial parasites in domestic cats p. 682
Darawan Nonsaithong, Supit Yotmek, Somsri Yotmek, Hathai Nochote, Sirichit Wongkamchai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Usa Lek-Uthai
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.248340  
Objective: To detect and identify filarial parasites in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from domestic cats using high resolution melting real-time PCR (HRM RT-PCR). Methods: A total of 208 DBS were collected from domestic cats in a brugian filariasis endemic areas in Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. Microfilariae were found in 9 blood slides using Giemsa-stained thick blood film. The extracted DNA from blood spot volumes of 10 and 20 μL DBS with positive filarial parasites in cats were performed using HRM RT-PCR method. The primers were designed based on the partial mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for identifying Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis. All purified samples were then detected. Results: Using different volumes of 10 μL and 20 μL DBS could easily distinguish filarial parasites and showed similar results. PCR amplicons of Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis were determined at melting peak (temperature) of 75.70 77.46 and 73.56 respectively. All 9 positive DBS samples showed positive Brugia pahangi and similar nucleotide sequences. Conclusions: This HRM RT-PCR method is able to diagnose, identify and discriminate filarial parasites collected from DBS, which is simple and inexpensive compared with other probe-based genotyping methods. Furthermore, this method is useful to survey, prevent and control filariasis.
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Can miRNA712_3p be a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis? p. 688
Nermine Mogahed Fawzy Hussein Mogahed, Safaa Ibrahim Khedr, Rasha Abdelmawla Ghazala, Inas Mohamed Masoud
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.248341  
Objective: To assess the role of miRNA712_3p as a specific biomarker in early detection of toxoplasmosis in plasma of mice acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Methods: Real-time PCR was used to measure the level of miRNA712_3p in plasma of infected mice. Immune-competent and immune-suppressed mice were examined, three and five days post-infection. Results: Results revealed significant up-regulation of plasma miRNA712_3p in both immune- competent and immune-compromised groups in comparison to the control non-infected group. Additionally, an increase in the level of miRNA712_3p was noticed correspondently in the parasite density detected in liver impression smears. Conclusions: miRNA712_3p can be used as a novel biomarker for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in both immune-competent and immune-compromised host.
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