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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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February 2020
Volume 13 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 49-96

Online since Tuesday, January 14, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Dengue virus infections and anti-dengue virus activities of Andrographis paniculata p. 49
Mohamed Ali-Seyed, Kavitha Vijayaraghavan
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.275412  
Dengue is a debilitating disease that poses a perpetual threat to human health and increases the global economic burden every year. Despite advances in medical sciences, dengue virus (DENV) infects approximately 200 million people every year. To date, no effective antiviral is valiable to treat DENV in individuals despite great efforts in accomplishing these goals. Numerous approaches have been used in the search for dengue antiviral like screening of combinatorial compounds against DENV enzymes and structure-based computational discovery. In recent years, investigators have turned their focus into medicinal plants, trying to identify compounds that can be used as dengue antiviral. Nature represents a great reservoir of potential substances that can be explored with the aim of discovering new drugs that can be either used directly as pharmaceuticals or can provide drug leads, which can be scrutinized further for the development of new anti-dengue natural product. Many previous investigations have dealt with numerous plant extracts or bioactive principles for their antiviral property as they normally considered being safer when compared to synthetic drugs. Andrographis paniculata belongs to family Acanthaceae and is generally known as ‘king of bitters’. Diverse bioactive compounds from this plant such as diterpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, noriridoides and other miscellaneous compounds have exhibited their potential as therapeutics for various chronic as well as infectious diseases. This review is based on literature review on scientific journals, books and electronic sources, which highlights the pathogenesis of DENV and describe an assortment of bioactive principles that have been possessing antiviral potential, which include dengue and discuss the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of Andrographis paniculata. However, a detailed and more comprehensive clinical trial on mammalian tissues and organs is needed in future studies.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Human leukocyte antigen class-II DRB1 alleles and Giardia lamblia infection in children: A case-control study p. 56
Samar N El-Beshbishi, Ayat A ElBlihy, Raefa A Atia, Ahmed Megahed, Fatma A Auf
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.275413  
Objective: To compare the genotype frequencies of HLA class- II DRB1 alleles in Giardia (G.) lamblia-infected children. Methods: A total of 490 Egyptian children aged 2-16 years were subjected to microscopic stool examination to detect G. lamblia infection, and to exclude other intestinal pathogens. On the basis of their microscopic findings, a group of 80 children were chosen as giardiasis cases, another 80 children were confirmed as Giardia free control group by immunochromatographic test, and the remaining children were excluded. Both giardiasis and control groups were then subjected to blood examination to identify their genetic type of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results: HLA class-II DRB1*03:01 and DRB1*13:01 alleles were significantly associated with G. lamblia infection (P<0.001 for each variable). On the other hand, HLA class-II DRB1*04:02, DRB1*10:01, DRB1*14:01 and DRB1*15:01 alleles were significantly demonstrated in Giardia free children. However, other HLA-DRB1 alleles did not show any significant association with giardiasis. Conclusions: HLA class-II DRB1*03, DRB1*13, DRB1*04, DRB1*10, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15 alleles may be involved in the establishment of host immune response to G. lamblia infection.
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A PCR and RFLP-based molecular diagnostic algorithm for visceral leishmaniasis p. 62
Natalia Souza de Godoy, Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima-Junior, José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Thelma Suely Okay, Lucia Maria Almeida Braz
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.275414  
Objective: To determine an algorithm for molecular diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) (RV1/ RV2) and internal transcriber spacer (ITS1) (LITSR/L5.8S) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), complemented by ITS1 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), using peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirate from patients with suspected VL. Methods: Biological samples were submitted to the gold standard for the diagnosis of VL and molecular diagnosis represented by ITS1 PCR, kDNA PCR, and ITS1 PCR RFLP. The samples were obtained from seven groups: group I, 82 samples from patients with confirmed VL; group H , 16 samples from patients under treatment for VL; groupII, 14 samples from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL); group II, a pool of six experimentally infected sandflies (Lutzomya longipalpis); group IV, 18 samples from patients with confirmed tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and groups Ή and VI were from control groups without VII. Results: The following gold standard and molecular examination results were obtained for each of the seven groups: group I : parasitologic and immunochromatographic tests showed a sensitivity of 76.3% (61 of 80) and 68.8% (55 of 80), respectively, and a sensitivity of 97.6% (80 of 82) and 92.7% (76 of 82) by ITS1 and kDNA PCR, respectively. After ITS1 PCR RFLP (Hae III) analysis of the 80 positive samples, 52.5% (42 of 80) generated three fragments of 180, 70, and 50 bp, corresponding to the pattern of Leishmania infantum infantum; group Π : negative for the parasitologic methods and positive for IrK39 (100%, 16 of 16), presented 12.5% (2 of 16) of positivity by ITS1 PCR and 25.0% (4 of 16) by kDNA PCR; group III: positive in the parasitologic and serologic tests (100%, 14 of 14), presented 85.7%(12 of 14) of positivity by ITS1 PCR and kDNA PCR. ITS1 PCR RFLP showed that 83.3% (10 of 12) of the canine samples contained parasites with profiles similar to L. infantum; groupIVpresented amplifications by ITS1 PCR and kDNA PCR. ITS1 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP, generating a profile similar to that of L. infantum; group V: positive in the parasitologic examination (100%, 18 of 18), presented 72.2% (13 of 18) of the samples by ITS1 PCR positive. A total of 69.2% (9 of 13) showed profiles corresponding to a Viannia complex by ITS1 PCR RFLP; and group Ή and group W were negative by ITS1 and kDNA molecular tests. Comparing the molecular results with the parasitologic and serologic diagnosis from group I, almost perfect agreement was found ( κ both>0.80, P<0.001). ITS1 and RV1/RV2 PCR detected 90.2% (74 of 82) of the samples. Two samples positive by RV1/RV2 were negative by LITSR/L5.8S, and six samples positive by LITSR/L5.8S were negative by RV1/RV2. Therefore, these two systems complemented each other; they diagnosed 100% of the samples as belonging to the Leishmania genus. Conclusions: We suggest an algorithm for the molecular diagnosis of VL, which must consider previous parasitologic and serologic (immunochromatographic) diagnoses, and should combine kDNA and ITS1 to determine the Leishmania subgenus using RFLP as a complement method to define the L. infantum species.
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In vitro biological activities of aqueous extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach. & Thonn.) taub. and Aframomum citratum (C. Pereira) K.Schum from three Agroecologic Zones in Cameroon p. 71
Eyenga Manga, Marie Laure Fauconnier, Judith Laure Ngondi, Akoumou Manga Ngando, Marianne Sindic
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.275415  
Objective: To investigate some phytochemical constituents and biological activities of twelve samples of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach & Thonn.) taub. and nine samples of Aframomum citratum (C. Pereira) K. Schum fruits collected in the bimodal forest zone (ZONE V), the unimodal forest zone (ZONE IV) and the highlands zone (ZONE III) in Cameroon. Methods: Fresh fruits extracts were obtained by aqueous infusion (100 °C during 15 min) and evaluated by spectrophotometric methods for total polyphenol (TPP), total flavonoids (TFLV) contents and antioxidant (DPPH, total antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, iron reducing power or ferric reducing antioxidant power and inhibition of beta carotene discoloration assays) and anti-inflammatory (inhibitions of protein denaturation and 5-LOX represented by INH.PROT and INH.5- LOX respectively) properties. Principal component analysis was performed. Results: For both species, fruits from ZONE V have the highest TPP, TFLV levels and biological activities. TPP and TFLV content of Aframomum citratum and Tetrapleura tetraptera fruits are positively and significantly (P<0.05) correlated. The biological activities of all extracts (0.25, 2.5, 25, 250 mg/mL) were dosedependent and the extracts have shown strong antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activities, but less than references (ascorbic acid, diclofenac, quercetin, and butylated hydroxytoluene). There was a positive correlation between TPP, TFLV and total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and inhibition of beta carotene discoloration assays, and inverse correlations were observed with the IC50 (g/mL) of DPPH, INH.5-LOX and INH. PROT assays for both species. Conclusions: The fruits exhibit variabilities and those from ZONE V for both species are economically and healthcare challenging for herbalists, pharmaceutical firms, scientists and consumers. Indeed, most important extraction yield of bioactive compounds correlated with significant biological activities and the use of less material compared with an implementation in other Agro-ecologic Zones with the same results are noted.
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Predicting the number of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Kashgar, Xinjiang, China using the ARIMA-EGARCH model p. 81
Hu-ling Li, Rong-jiong Zheng, Qiang Zheng, Wei Jiang, Xue-liang Zhang, Wei-ming Wang, Xing Feng, Kai Wang, Xiao-bo Lu
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.275416  
Objective: To forecast the visceral leishmaniasis cases using autoregress integrated moving average (ARIMA) and hybrid ARIMA-EGARCH model, which offers a scientific basis to control visceral leishmaniasis spread in Kashgar Prefecture of Xinjiang, China. Methods: The data used in this paper are monthly visceral leishmaniasis cases in the Kashgar Prefecture of Xinjiang from 2004 to 2016. The sample data between 2004 and 2015 were used for the estimation to choose the best model and the sample data in 2016 were used for the forecast. Time series of visceral leishmaniasis started on 1 January 2004 and ended on 31 December 2016, consisting of 1 790 observations reported in Kashgar Prefecture. Results: For Xinjiang, the total number of reported cases were 2 187, the male-to-female ratio of cases was 1:1.42. Patients aged between 0 and 10 years accounted for 82.72% of all reported cases and the largest percentage of visceral leishmaniasis cases was detected among scattered children who accounted for 68.82%. The monthly incidences fitted by ARIMA (2, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12 model were consistent with the real data collected from 2004 to 2015. However, the predicted cases failed to comply with the observed case number; we then attempted to establish a hybrid ARIMA-EGARCH model to fit visceral leishmaniasis. Finally, the ARIMA (2, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12- EGARCH (1, 1) model showed a good estimation when dealing with volatility clustering in the data series. Conclusions: The combined model has been determined as the best prediction model with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 7.23% in the validation phase, which means that this model has high validity and rationality and can be used for short-term prediction of visceral leishmaniasis and could be applied to the prevention and control of the disease.
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CASE REPORT Top

Co-existence of renal hydatid cyst and renal cell carcinoma in one kidney: A case report p. 91
Maryam Maghbool, Armin Alivand, Najmeh Zolmajdi, Ali Kharmandar
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.275417  
Rationale: Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is a parasitic infection of humans, but renal hydatid cyst is rare. It is even more uncommon to find hydatid cyst and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) synchronously in one kidney. Patient concerns: This report presents a 47 years old Iranian man with the chief complaint of lower abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomographic scan was performed for more evaluation. Diagnosis: RCC was the most probable diagnosis, so he went under left total nephrectomy. Eventually, after histopathologic examination of the excised kidney, cystic echinococcosis came to the first line and papillary RCC was the second diagnosis. Outcomes and lessons: Diagnosis of hydatid cyst and RCC is mostly based on imaging, but, as we noticed in this case, distinguishing between these two may sometimes be difficult due to radiological similarities.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

First evidence of Bartonella phoceensis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti in synanthropic rodents in Malaysia p. 94
Van Lun Low, Tiong Kai Tan, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Sazaly AbuBakar, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.275418  
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