Impact Factor 2018: 1.772 (@Clarivate Analytics)
5-Year Impact Factor: 1.772 (@Clarivate Analytics)
  • Users Online: 1226
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 365-374

Tioxolone niosomes exert antileishmanial effects on Leishmania tropica by promoting promastigote apoptosis and immunomodulation


1 Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2 Department of Pediatric dermatology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
3 Pharmaceutics Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4 Department of Pediatrics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
5 HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
6 Research Center of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Iraj Sharifi
Leishmaniasis Research Center, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: The present study was financially supported by the Iran National Science Foundation under Grant ID 95839151 to Saeedeh Farajzadeh, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262566

Get Permissions

Objective: To explore the antileishmanial effect of tioxolone and its niosomal form against Leishmania tropica. Methods: Tioxolone niosomes were prepared by the hydration method and were evaluated for morphology, size, release study, and encapsulation efficiency. The cytotoxicity of tioxolone and its niosomal form was measured by MTT assay, leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and amastigote by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry, IL-12, IL-10 and metacaspase gene expression levels by q-PCR. Results: Span/Tween 40 and Span/Tween 60 niosomes had good physical stability as depicted in their size distribution curves and high encapsulation efficiency (>99%). The release profile of the entrapped compounds showed Fickian’s model of tioxolone delivery based on diffusion through lipid bilayers. With the IC50 value for amastigote as (24.5±2.1) μg/mL and selectivity index as 10.5, the Span/Tween 60 niosome (NT2) had a superior effect to other drugs. The CC50 value and IC50 of promastigote value for NT2 were (257.5±24.5) μg/mL and (164.8±20.6) μg/ mL, respectively. The flow cytometric analysis showed that tioxolone and niosomal forms induced apoptosis of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in a dose-dependent manner. NT2 increased the expression level of IL-12 and metacaspase genes and decreased the expression level of the IL-10 gene. Conclusions: Niosomes of tioxolone play an immunomodulatory role in increasing Th1 cytokine profile and inhibiting the Th2 cytokine profile. It could be used for treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed230    
    Printed15    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded108    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal