|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 7 | Page : 291-299
Potential of herbal constituents as new natural leads against helminthiasis: A neglected tropical disease
Kiran D Patil, Shashikant B Bagade, Sanjay R Sharma, Ketan V Hatware
NMIMS, School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, Shirpur, India
|Date of Submission||19-Feb-2019|
|Date of Decision||21-Jun-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||25-Jun-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||09-Jul-2019|
Shashikant B Bagade
SVKM’s NMIMS School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, Shirpur, Bank of Tapi River, Dist. Dhule, Maharashtra, 425405
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The WHO reports that billions of people and animals in tropical and subtropical regions are affected by helminthiasis as neglected tropical disease. It is predominant in underdeveloped areas; nevertheless, the increase in the number of travelers and migrants has made this infection more common. The current mass drug treatment produces severe side effects and many strains of helminths are resistant to them. None of the chemotherapeutic drugs meets the ideal requirements of anthelmintics, such as broad spectrum of activity, single dose cure, free from side effect and cost-effectiveness. Today, many researchers are screening the traditional herbal system in search of the anthelmintic herbal constituents which overcome all the problems of synthetic drugs. Several researchers proclaim anthelmintic activity of herbal medicines by using different experimental models. The present review demonstrates natural product drug discovery, outlining potential of herbal constituents from natural sources as natural leads against helminthiasis.
Keywords: Neglected tropical diseases, Herbal constituents, Helminthiasis, Herbal anthelmintics
|How to cite this article:|
Patil KD, Bagade SB, Sharma SR, Hatware KV. Potential of herbal constituents as new natural leads against helminthiasis: A neglected tropical disease. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2019;12:291-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Patil KD, Bagade SB, Sharma SR, Hatware KV. Potential of herbal constituents as new natural leads against helminthiasis: A neglected tropical disease. Asian Pac J Trop Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 16];12:291-9. Available from: http://www.apjtm.org/text.asp?2019/12/7/291/262072
| 1. Introduction|| |
Human beings have relied on the Mother Nature throughout the ages for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. In particular, herbal drugs have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicinal systems. The earliest records from 2 600 BC, approximately 1 000 plant-derived substances were documented in Mesopotamia. Most of them are still used today for the treatment of ailments like tropical diseases.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are among the seventeen life threatening endemic ailments that occur in tropical and subtropical regions covering 149 countries. Billions of people were affected with the NTDs and people died from these infections is more than half million every year,,,. The infections mainly affect peoples who live on less than US$ 2 per day or under the World Bank poverty level of US$ 1.25 per day. Helminthiasis is one of the major public health problems and development challenges, and it is estimated that each species affect more than one billion people all over the world and is classified as neglected tropical disease by WHO,. It is mainly associated with poverty and is most predominant in the poorest populations of the developing countries. Helminthiasis is one of the major reasons behind poverty of these countries as it affects the pregnancy, child growth, worker productivity, and outcome,. In these regions, it mainly contributed to malnutrition, anemia, eosinophilia, pneumonia and reduced physical and intellectual abilities,,. Moreover, it offers very less profit for pharmaceutical industries in returns of huge investment on research and development of new chemical entities.
Helminthiasis is the most common infection caused by worms, which is mainly divided into two phyla. Nemathelminths are nematodes, e.g. hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale) and roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoids). Platyhelminths are flatworms divided into the cestode, e.g. tapeworms (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata) and the trematode e.g. flukes (Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma hematobolium).
| 2. Helminths affecting humans|| |
The helminths affect approximately more than 1.45 billion people across the globe. Among them, Ascaris lumbricoides affects more than 819 million, Trichuris trichiura affects over 465 million and hookworm (Necator americanus and/or Ancylostoma duodenale) affects over 439 million peoples worldwide. Helminthiasis leads to malnutrition and anemia, which retard children’s mental and physical growth, significantly contribute to school absenteeism. Helminths mainly reside in gastrointestinal tract and can also infect liver and other organs. The infection is generally spread through contaminated soil with helminths and their eggs in the areas with poor sanitation. Helminths is a large veterinary health problem to farm yard animals and responsible for 3%-8% of their weight loss and 28% of death.
[Table 1] shows the prevalence of helminthiasis in three major continents. It has been observed that African and Asian are affected more compared to America. This data supports the statement that helminthiasis is more common in developing countries than developed countries.
| 3. Conventional drug therapy for helminthiasis|| |
The current mass drug treatment of helminths produces side effects [Table 2] like abdominal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea, weight loss and many of the drugs are not recommended to use during pregnancy. Consequently agranulocytosis and teratogenicity are major adverse effects of the conventional medicines. None of the chemotherapeutic drugs meets the ideal requirements of anthelmintic such as broad spectrum of activity, single dose cure, free from side effects and cost effectiveness. Moreover, the increase of resistance, toxic residue of synthetic drugs, less availability and high cost requires the search for alternative medicinal system to overcome associated problems.
| 4. Herbal constituents as new natural leads|| |
The World Medicines Situation 2011 reports that all the countries uses traditional medicines at some extent, among these, developing countries accounts for 70%-95%. Moreover, at least 25% of all currents drugs are obtained either directly or indirectly from natural origin. According to the herbal medicine market research report 2018, the global market of herbal medicines increasing exponentially to register a compound annual growth rate of 5.88% to reach US$ 129 million by 2023, which was 50 million in 2017. As per the resolution of World Health Assembly (WHA62.13), the member governments are mandatory to conserve, respect and universally communicate the knowledge of traditional medicines. Also, it prepares regulatory policies for development of new innovative traditional medicines to encourage appropriate, harmless, rational and effective uses.
A survey of plant constituents used as drugs in countries with WHO-Traditional Medicine Centers has identified 122 compounds derived from 94 plants, of which 80% were used for therapeutic purposes. There is no doubt that herbs are among the vital natural sources for synthesis of various molecules from simple skeletal structure to complex one. Many popular components are based on traditional drugs, such as quinine (chloroquine & mefloquine), artemisinin, taxol (paclitaxel), camptothecin, khellin, sodium chromoglycate, galegine, metformin, papaverine, verapamil,,,. Therefore, the WHO paid great attention on new chemical entities to manage NTDs including helminthiasis.
Thus, the present review demonstrates the potential of herbal constituents from different plants sources as new natural leads against helminthiasis [Table 3]. The method used for compiling following data consist of articles from the National Center for Biotechnology Information during the period 2005-2019.
|Table 3: Different in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic studies of herbal constituents.|
Click here to view
It was also observed from the data that phytoconstituents from different plants shown their distinct mechanism of action according to the major chemical group. [Table 4] summarizes the anthelmintic mechanism of different phytoconstituents.
[Figure 1] shows that around 46 families of plants possess anthelmintic activity. Among them, family Asteraceae has the most plants that show anthelmintic potential. The helminthes used for evaluating anthelmintic activity are given in [Figure 2]. It has been observed that Haemonchus contortus was the most frequently used test agent for the study of anthelmintic potential.
Subsequently, [Figure 3] shows that the major plant parts possessing anthelmintic potential. Among all these parts, leaves have shown more potential than other plant parts.
Moreover, the [Figure 4] shows the various methods of extraction used to obtain anthelmintic phytoconstituents from the plants. The aqueous extract followed by methanolic and ethanolic extract have shown more significant anthelmintic potential.
|Figure 4: The anthelmintic activity of crude powder and different fractions obtained from plants.|
Click here to view
Nevertheless, the anthelmintic potential depends on the presence of major phytoconstituents present in the plants. It has been observed that, tannins (20%) shows more potential followed by flavonoids (19%), phenolic compounds (18%), saponins (12%), alkaloids (11%), various enzymes (8%), metals (2%), glycosides (2%) terpenoids (2%) and other phytoconstituents (3%) are responsible for anthelmintic activity [Table 3].
| 5. Conclusions|| |
The available conventional drugs fails to meet the ideal requirements of anthelmintic effect on all species of helminthes, single dose cure, free from side effects and cost-effective. Moreover, the increase of resistance, toxic impurities from synthetic drugs, less availability with higher cost requires the search for alternative system of medicine to overcome associated problems. The old classical systems of medicine and ethno medical surveys described the use of plants for the treatment of helminthic infection. This traditional knowledge of active herbs revealed effectiveness and safety of medicinal plants. However, their mode of action and the phytoconstituents responsible for the activity is not clearly known. The crude plant extracts, essential oils and isolates containing active principle show significant anthelmintic activity using in vitro and in vivo models. Moreover, to explore bioactivity of anthelmintic plants, further studies are needed, so as to discover different natural sources to emerge cost effective treatment of helminthic infection. The present review surveys literature that report name of plants, their anthelmintic activity and possible constituent that responsible for the bioactivity. The special attention is desired in order to standardize the bioactive plant with quantitative anthelmintic activity. Consequently, the design of palatable herbal preparations is needed to overcome side effects. Hence further study must be carried out to explore different plants of higher efficiency and negligible side effects.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
| References|| |
Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Natural products: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochim Biophys Acta-Gen Subj
2013; 1830(6): 3670-3695.
Molyneux DH. Neglected tropical diseases-beyond the tipping point? Lancet
2010; 375(9708): 3-4.
Liese BH, Schubert L. Official development assistance for health-how neglected are neglected tropical diseases? An analysis of health financing. Int Health
2009; 1(2): 141-147.
Molyneux DH, Savioli L, Engels D. Neglected tropical diseases: Progress towards addressing the chronic pandemic. Lancet
2017; 389(10066): 312-325.
Lobo DA, Velayudhan R, Chatterjee P, Kohli H, Hotez PJ. The neglected tropical diseases of India and South Asia: Review of their prevalence, distribution, and control or elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis
2011; 5(10): 1-7.
Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH. Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet
2009; 373(9674): 1570-1575.
Bundy DAP. The global burden of intestinal nematode disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
1994; 88(3): 259-261.
Bundy DAP, de Silva NR. Can we deworm this wormy world? Br Med Bull
1998; 54(2): 421-432.
Wink M. Medicinal plants: A source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites. Molecules
2012; 17(11): 12771-12791.
Pullan RL, Smith JL, Jasrasaria R, Brooker SJ. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors
2014; 7(1): 37.
Hall A, Hewitt G, Tuffrey V, de Silva N. A review and meta-analysis of the impact of intestinal worms on child growth and nutrition. Matern Child Nutr
2008; 4(S1): 118-236.
Mascarini-Serra L. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection. J Glob Infect Dis
2011; 3(2): 175.
Waller PJ. Sustainable helminth control of ruminants in developing countries. Vet Parasitol
1997; 71(2-3): 195-207.
Bacchi CJ, Nathan HC, Livingston T, Valladares G, Saric M, Sayer PD, et al. Differential susceptibility to DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine in clinical isolates of Trypanosoma brucei
rhodesiense. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
1990; 34(6): 1183-1188.
Geerts S, Gryseels B. Drug resistance in human helminths: Current situation and lessons from livestock. Clin Microbiol Rev
2000; 13(2): 207-222.
Molly Meri Robinson XZ. The world medicines situation 2011 traditional medicines: Global situation, issues and challenges
. 3rd Edition. Geneva: World Heal Organ; 2011, p.1-14.
Khan MSA, Ahmad I. Herbal medicine: Current trends and future prospects. In: New Look to phytomedicine
. Cambridge: Elsevier; 2019, p. 3-13.
Natural product as a source of lead to the design of new drugs. Nat Prod Chem Res
2014; 2(6). doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000156.
Koparde AA, Doijad RC, Magdum CS. Natural products in drug discovery. In: Pharmacognosy-medicinal plants
. London: IntechOpen; 2019.
Iqbal Z, Lateef M, Jabbar A, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. In vivo
anthelmintic activity of Butea monosperma
against Trichostrongylid nematodes
in sheep. Fitoterapia
2006; 77(2): 137-140.
Iqbal Z, Lateef M, Jabbar A, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. In vitro
and in vivo
anthelmintic activity of Nicotiana tabacum
L. leaves against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Phyther Res
2006; 20(1): 46-48.
Jegede OC, Ajanusi JO, Adaudi AO, Agbede RIS. Anthelmintic efficacy of extracts of Spigelia anthelmia
Linn. on experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis
in rats. J Vet Sci
2006; 7(3): 229-232.
Araújo SA, Soares AM dos S, Silva CR, Almeida Júnior EB, Rocha CQ, Ferreira AT da S, et al. In vitro
anthelmintic effects of Spigelia anthelmia
protein fractions against Haemonchus contortus. PLoS One
2017; 12(12): e0189803. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0189803.
Behnke JM, Buttle DJ, Stepek G, Lowe A, Duce IR. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases. Parasit Vectors
2008; 1: 29.
Tariq KA, Chishti MZ, Ahmad F, Shawl AS. Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Artemisia absinthium
against ovine nematodes. Vet Parasitol
2009; 160(1-2): 83-88.
Kosalge S, Fursule RA. Investigation of in vitro
anthelmintic activity of thespesia lampas (Cav.). Asian J Pharm Clin Res
2009; 2(2): 69-71.
Jatsa HB, Sock ETN, Tchuente LAT, Kamtchouing P. Evaluation of the in vivo
activity of different concentrations of Clerodendrum umbellatum
poir against Schistosoma mansoni
infection in mice. African J Tradit Complement Altern Med
2009; 6(3): 216-221.
Deore SL, Khadabadi SS. In vitro
anthelmintic studies of Chlorophytum borivilianum
Sant. & Fernandez tubers. Indian J Nat Prod Resour
2010; 1(1): 53-56.
Kaur S, Kumar B, Puri S, Tiwari PDK. Comparative study of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia. Int J Drug Dev Res
2010; 2(4): 758-763.
Durga N, Padmaa MP. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of stem bark of Holoptelea integrifolia
(Roxb) Planch. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm
2010; 1(2): 637-641.
Ademola IO, Eloff JN. In vitro
anthelmintic effect of Anogeissus leiocarpus
(DC.) Guill. & Perr. leaf extracts and fractions on developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus. African J Tradit Complement Altern Med
2011; 8(2): 134-139.
Badar N, Iqbal Z, Khan MN, Akhtar MS. In vitro
and in vivo
anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica
(L.) willd. ex delile bark and leaves. Pak Vet J
2011; 31(3): 185-191.
Wabo Poné J, Fossi Tankoua O, Yondo J, Komtangi MC, Mbida M, Bilong Bilong CF. The in vitro
effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides
(Asteraceae) on three life cycle stages of the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri
(Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae). Vet Med Int
2011; 2011: 1-5.
Ali N, Ali Shah SW, Shah I, Ahmed G, Ghias M, Khan I, et al. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum thapsus
Mullein. BMC Complement Altern Med
2012; 12(1): 519.
Ferreira LE, Castro PMN, Chagas ACS, França SC, Beleboni RO. In vitro
anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata
L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus
from sheep. Exp Parasitol
2013; 134(3): 327-332.
Ali N, Aleem U, Ali Shah SW, Shah I, Junaid M, Ahmed G, et al. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus
agg. BMC Complement Altern Med
2013; 13(1): 138.
Raju GS, Moghal MR, Dewan SMR, Amin MN, Billah M. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum
Ortega. Avicenna J Phytomed
2013; 3(4): 313-320.
Kuri S, Billah MM, Rana SMM, Naim Z, Islam MM, Hasanuzzaman M, et al. Phytochemical and in vitro
biological investigations of methanolic extracts of Enhydra fluctuans
Lour. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
2014; 4(4): 299-305.
Nawaz M, Sajid SM, Zubair M, Hussain J, Abbasi Z, Mohi A, et al. In vitro
and in vivo
anthelmintic activity of leaves of Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sisso
and Morus alba
against Haemonchus contortus. Glob Vet
2014; 13(6): 996-1001.
Chouhan G, Islamuddin M, Want MY, Abdin MZ, Ozbak HA, Hemeg HA, et al. Apoptosis mediated leishmanicidal activity of Azadirachta indica
bioactive fractions is accompanied by Th1 immunostimulatory potential and therapeutic cure in vivo. Parasit Vectors
2015; 8: 183.
Aggarwal R, Kaur K, Suri M, Bagai U. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica
and Punica granatum
against Gastrothylax indicus. J Parasit Dis Organ Indian Soc Parasitol
2016; 40(4): 1230-1238.
Debebe Y, Tefera M, Mekonnen W, Abebe D, Woldekidan S, Abebe A, et al. Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi
Vatke in vivo
and in vitro
against some intestinal parasites. BMC Complement Altern Med
2015; 15: 187.
Gogoi S, Yadav AK. In vitro
and in vivo
anthelmintic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella
(L.) Roxb. leaf extract on Hymenolepis diminuta
(Cestoda) and Syphacia obvelata
(Nematoda). J Intercult Ethnopharmacol
2016; 5(4): 427-433.
Zaman MA, Iqbal Z, Abbas RZ, Khan MN. Anticoccidial activity of herbal complex in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella. Parasitology
2012; 139(2): 237-243.
Desrues O, Peña-Espinoza M, Hansen TVA, Enemark HL, Thamsborg SM. Anti-parasitic activity of pelleted sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia)
against Ostertagia ostertagi
and Cooperia oncophora
in calves. Parasit Vectors
2016; 9: 329.
Nath P, Yadav AK. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus
Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol
2016; 5(4): 390-395.
Kumar V, Reddy SGE, Chauhan U, Kumar N, Singh B. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum armatum
against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Nat Prod Res
2016; 30(6): 689-692.
Spiegler V, Liebau E, Hensel A. Anthelmintic activity of procyanidins from West African medicinal plants-insights into phytochemistry and molecular targets. Planta Medica Int Open
2017; 4(S1). doi:10.1055/ s-0037-1608560.
Ngouateu Teufack SE, NMbogning Tayo G, Ngangout Alidou M, Yondo J, Djiomene AF, Wabo Poné J, et al. Anthelminthic properties of methylene chloride-methanol (1:1) extracts of two Cameroonians medicinal plants on Heligmosomoides bakeri
(Nematoda: Heligmosomatidea). BMC Complement Altern Med
2017; 17: 400.
Kalmobe J, Ndjonka D, Boursou D, Vildina JD, Liebau E. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro
anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata
(Ochnaceae) on the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi
and on drug resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Complement Altern Med
2017; 17: 404.
Zenebe S, Feyera T, Assefa S. In vitro
anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis
L. and leaves of Schinus molle
L. against Haemonchus contortus. Biomed Res Int
2017; 2017: 1-6.
Mohanamba E, Shobana K, Sree MS, Kusuma GM, Satish K, Vijayakumar B. Isolation of alcoholic extract of Cissus quadrangularis
and evaluation of in-vitro
anthelmintic activity. Int J Nov Trends Pharm Sci
2011; 1(1): 6-9.
Zangueu CB, Olounlade AP, Ossokomack M, Djouatsa YNN, Alowanou GG, Azebaze AGB, et al. In vitro
effects of aqueous extract from Maytenus senegalensis
(Lam.) Exell stem bark on egg hatching, larval migration and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus. BMC Vet Res
2018; 14(1): 147.
Jamous RM, Ali-Shtayeh MS, Abu-Zaitoun SY, Markovics A, Azaizeh H. Effects of selected Palestinian plants on the in vitro
exsheathment of the third stage larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes. BMC Vet Res
2017; 13(1): 1-11.
Váradyová Z, Mrav áková D, Babják M, Bryszak M, Grešáková, obanová K, et al. Effects of herbal nutraceuticals and/or zinc against Haemonchus contortus
in lambs experimentally infected. BMC Vet Res
2018; 14(1): 1-12.
Banerjee T, Singh A, Kumar S, Dhanani T, Gajbhiye NA, Koley TK, et al. Ovicidal and larvicidal effects of extracts from leaves of Andrographis paniculata
(Burm. f.) Wall.ex Nees against field isolates of human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale). J Ethnopharmacol
Herath HMPD, Preston S, Jabbar A, Garcia-Bustos J, Addison RS, Hayes S, et al. Selected pyrones from the plants Cryptocarya novoguineensis
(Lauraceae) and Piper methysticum
(Piperaceae) with activity against Haemonchus contortus in vitro. Int J Parasitol Drugs drug Resist
2019; 9: 72-79.
Acevedo-Ramfírez PM del C, Hallal-Calleros C, Flores-Pérez I, Alba-Hurtado F, Mendoza-Garfías MB, Castro del Campo N, et al. Anthelmintic effect and tissue alterations induced in vitro
by hydrolysable tannins on the adult stage of the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol
2019; 266: 1-6.
Borges DGL, Echeverria JT, de Oliveira TL, Heckler RP, de Freitas MG, Damasceno-Junior GA, et al. Discovery of potential ovicidal natural products using metabolomics. PLoS One
2019; 14(1): e0211237. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211237.
Esteban-Ballesteros M, Sanchis J, Gutiérrez-Corbo C, Balaña-Fouce R, Rojo-Vázquez FA, González-Lanza C, et al. In vitro
anthelmintic activity and safety of different plant species against the ovine gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta. Res Vet Sci
2019; 123: 153-158.
Morais S, Silva K, Araujo H, Vieira I, Alves D, Fontenelle R, et al. Anacardic acid constituents from cashew nut shell liquid: NMR characterization and the effect of unsaturation on its biological activities. Pharmaceuticals
2017; 10(4): 31.
Cortes-Morales JA, Olmedo-Juárez A, Trejo-Tapia G, González- Cortazar M, Domínguez-Mendoza BE, Mendoza-de Gives P, et al. In vitro
ovicidal activity of Baccharis conferta
Kunth against Haemonchus contortus. Exp Parasitol
2019; 197: 20-28.
Moussouni L, Benhanifia M, Ayad A. In-vitro
anthelmintic effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Marrubium vulgare
leaves against bovine digestive strongyles. Turkish J Parasitol
2018; 42(4): 262-267.
Ferreira LE, Benincasa BI, Fachin AL, Contini SHT, França SC, Chagas ACS, et al. Essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia, Anthemis nobile
and Lavandula officinalis: In vitro
anthelmintic activities against Haemonchus contortus. Parasit Vectors
2018; 11(1): 269.
Soares AMS, Oliveira JTA, Rocha CQ, Ferreira ATS, Perales J, Zanatta AC, et al. Myracrodruon urundeuva
seed exudates proteome and anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. PLoS One
2018; 13(7): e0200848. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200848.
Shalaby H, El Namaky A, Kandil O, Hassan N. In vitro
assessment of Balanites aegyptiaca
fruit methanolic extract on the adult Toxocara canis. Iran J Parasitol
2018; 13(4): 643-647.
Roy H, Chakraborty A, Bhanja S, Nayak BS, Mishra SR, Ellaiah P. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. J Pharm Sci Technol
2010; 2(5): 217-221.
Kumar D, Mishra SK, Tripathi HC. Mechanism of anthelmintic action of benzylisothiocyanate. Fitoterapia
1991; 62: 403-410.
Stepek G, Lowe AE, Buttle DJ, Duce IR, Behnke JM. In vitro
and in vivo
anthelmintic efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases against the rodent gastrointestinal nematode, Trichuris muris. Parasitology
2006; 132(5): 681-689.
Das B, Tandon V, Saha N. Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita
(Fabaceae): Alteration in the activities of some glycolytic enzymes in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasitol Res
2004; 93(4): 253-261.
John J, Mehta A, Shukla S, Mehta P. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora
leaves. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol
2009; 31(3): 269271.
Melzig MF, Bader G, Loose R. Investigations of the mechanism of membrane activity of selected Triterpenoid Saponins. Planta Med
2001; 67(1): 43-48.
Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Coop RL. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: In vitro
and in vivo
studies. Vet Parasitol
2001; 99(3): 205-219.
Patel J, Kumar GS, Qureshi MS, Jena PK. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Eupatorium odoratum
L. Int J Phytomed
2010; 2(2): 127-132.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]