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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 526-533

Distribution and ecological aspects of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in Northeastern Iran


1 Infectious Diseases Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Vector-borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran
4 Gonbad-e Kavoos Health Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
5 Ministry of Health, National Institute for Medical Research Development(NIMAD), Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Yavar Rassi
Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Po.Box:14155- 6446, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.242309

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Objective: To determine both the distribution and the ecological characteristics of sand flies in Golestan Province, northeast of Iran in 2016. Methods: In this study, 34 villages were selected based on their geographical conditions. Sticky paper traps were used for collecting the sand flies. Sampling was carried out in each of villages from May to November. In each village, 60 traps for indoors and 60 for outdoors were monthly installed. The species of all collected sand flies were determined using approved morphological keys. Pearson coefficient correlation was used to find the relationship between the number of collected Phlebotomus papatasi from different villages and incidence rate of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis as well as the number of positive cases of the disease. The altitude of the studied villages was extracted from digital elevation model of the area using GIS and vegetation cover density index of the province was extracted from Modis satellite imagery and distribution map of sand flies drown up. Results: Overall, 5 428 sand flies were collected and identified, belonging to 18 species. Phlebotomus wenyoni was reported for the first time from the area in this study. The frequency of sand flies in the villages located in northeast of the Golestan province (the plateau area, lower altitude, arid and semi-arid climates, and lower vegetation cover density), were more than other villages in this province. There was a significant correlation between the number of collected Phlebotomus papatasi and incidence rate of the zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in different villages (r=0.837, P=0.019) as well as the number of positive cases of the disease (r=0.688, P<0.001). Conclusions: In the northeaster areas of Golestan Province which is known as the endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, the abundance of sand flies were more and the conditions for their growth and development were more appropriate.


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