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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 495-500

Molecular detection of Leishmania species in human and animals from cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic areas of Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


1 Vector Borne Diseases Lab, Department of Microbiology, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat, KP, 26000, Pakistan
2 Vector Borne Diseases Lab, Department of Microbiology, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat, KP, 26000, Pakistan; Faculty of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China
3 Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
4 Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China
5 College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
6 Faculty of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China
7 Department of Animal Breeding, Genetics and Reproduction, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, PR China
8 Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering Drug and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
9 Vector Biology Research Lab, US Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Mubashir Hussain
Vector Borne Diseases Lab and Management Center, Department of Microbiology, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat, KP
Pakistan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.240086

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Objectives: To detect Leishmania species in human patients, animal reservoirs and Phlebotomus sandflies in Waziristan, Pakistan. Methods: Tissue smears and aspirates from 448 cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) suspected patients were analyzed. To sort out role of the reservoir hosts, skin scrapings, spleen and liver samples from 104 rodents were collected. Furthermore, buffy coat samples were obtained from 60 domestic animals. Sandflies were also trapped. All human, animals and sandfly samples were tested by microscopy, kinetoplastic PCR and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism for detection of Leishmania species. Results: An overall prevalence of 3.83% and 5.21% through microscopy and ITS1 PCR respectively was found. However, the statistically non-significant correlation was found between area, gender, and number of lesions. The presence of rodents, sandflies, domestic animals and internally displaced people increased the risk of CL. Using ITS1-PCR-RFLP, Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) was confirmed in 106 samples while 25 of the isolates were diagnosed as Leishmania major (L. major). Similarly, 3/104 rodents were positive for L. major and 14 pools of DNA samples containing Phlebotomus sergenti sandflies were positive for L. tropica. None of samples from domestic animals were positive for leishmaniasis. Conclusions: In the present study, L. tropica and L. major are found to be the main causative agents of CL in study area. Movement of internally displaced people from CL endemic areas presents a risk for nearby CL free areas. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time L. major infection in rodents (Rattus rattus) and L. tropica in Phlebotomus sergenti sandflies trapped in Waziristan, Pakistan.


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