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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 265-271

Inhibitory activities of extracts of Rumex dentatus, Commelina benghalensis, Ajuga bracteosa, Ziziphus mauritiana as well as their compounds of gallic acid and emodin against dengue virus


1 Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2 Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 117600, Singapore
3 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 117545, Singapore

Correspondence Address:
Vincent TK Chow
Host and Pathogen Interactivity Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 117545
Singapore
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.231466

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Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effects against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) by five different fractions (extracted by methanol, ethanol, benzene, chloroform and n-hexane) of Rumex dentatus, Commelina benghalensis, Ajuga bracteosa and Ziziphus mauritiana, as well as their constituents (gallic acid, emodin, and isovanillic acid). Methods: All the samples were tested for cytotoxicity on baby hamster kidney cells by MTT assay and for anti-DENV-2 activity by plaque reduction neutralization assay using two DENV-2 doses (45 and 90 plaque- forming units or PFU). Results: All the samples except isovanillic acid exhibited significant prophylactic effects against DENV-2 infectivity (without cytotoxicity) when administered to cells before infection, but were not effective when given 6 h post-infection. The methanol extract of Rumex dentatus demonstrated the highest antiviral efficacy by inhibiting DENV-2 replication, with IC50 of 0.154 μg/mL and 0.234 μg/mL, when added before infection with 45 and 90 PFU of virus, respectively. Gallic acid also exhibited significant antiviral effects by prophylactic treatment prior to virus adsorption on cells, with IC50 of 0.191 μg/mL and 0.522μg/ mL at 45 and 90 PFU of DENV-2 infection, respectively. Conclusions: The highly potent activities of the extracts and constituent compounds of these plants against DENV-2 infectivity highlight their potential as targets for further research to identify novel antiviral agents against dengue.


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