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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 214-221

Andrographolide inhibits chikungunya virus infection by up-regulating host innate immune pathways


1 Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054, India
2 Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002, India

Correspondence Address:
Kamla Prasad Mishra
Sc. ‘E’, Immunomodulation Laboratory, Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi
India
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Source of Support: Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) is gratefully acknowledged for the financial support in the form NBC subproject, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.228436

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Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of andrographolide, a plant derived compound, against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Methods: Using flow cytometry and immunoblotting assay, in vitro viral protein expression was studied in THP-1 cells line. In Balb/c mouse neonates, viral RNA copy number was determined by real time PCR. Results: The results showed reduced CHIKV protein expression on andrographolide treatment in CHIKV-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Vero cells and THP-1 cell line. In vivo, andrographolide treatment to CHIKV-infected neonates reduced viral RNA copy number. Further, andrographolide also increased cytotoxic T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Andrographolide also activated host innate immune pathways, viz., protein kinase R, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α , retinoic acid inducible gene-I and interferon regulatory factor 3/7, thereby increasing IFN- α secretion. CHIKV-induced nuclear factor κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells and tumor necrosis factor- α was also reduced on andrographolide treatment. Conclusion: Andrographolide inhibits CHIKV by suppressing viral protein expression and up-regulating host innate immunity and hence could be an effective therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection.


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